What does hydrochloric acid do to you

hydrochloric acid

What is hydrochloric acid?

Hydrochloric acid (formula: $ HCl $, also called hydrochloric acid) is a strong inorganic acid. It arises from the solution of the gas hydrogen chloride in water. Your salts will be Chlorides called. The best known is sodium chloride ($ NaCl $).

Hydrochloric acid - structural formula:

Strictly speaking, hydrochloric acid is a mixture of hydrogen chloride with the structural formula

and water. The ions in the aqueous solution can look like this:

Hydrochloric acid - reaction equation:

If hydrogen chloride is passed into water, it dissociates into oxonium and chloride ions. This resulting aqueous solution is then called hydrochloric acid:

$ HCl + H_2O \ rightarrow H_3O ^ + _ {(aq)} + Cl ^ -_ {(aq)} $

Physical Properties:

  • Molar mass: $ 36.46 \ frac {~ \ text {g}} {~ \ text {mol}} $
  • Concentration: $ 36 - 38% $ (concentrated hydrochloric acid, also: fuming hydrochloric acid)
  • Density: $ 1.1 - 1.2 \ frac {~ \ text {g}} {~ \ text {cm} ^ 3} $ (depending on the concentration)
  • Solubility: $ 600 ~ \ text {L} $ $ HCl $ in $ 1 ~ \ text {L} $ water

Chemical properties:

  • Corrosive, not oxidizing, therefore does not react with precious metals such as copper
  • Reacts with base metals such as iron: $ Fe + 2HCl \ rightarrow FeCl_2 + H_2 $
  • Dissociation in water to ions: $ HCl \ rightleftharpoons H ^ + + Cl ^ - $
  • Neutralization of bases: $ NaOH + HCl \ rightarrow NaCl + H_2O $

Hazard warnings

Signal word: Danger

For the hazard statements, precautionary statements and the outdated R and S phrases, see table below.

Use of hydrochloric acid:

Analytical chemistry In the laboratory, hydrochloric acid is often used in the Titration used. The acid reacts with a base and there is one Neutralization reaction. In addition, hydrochloric acid is used Desalination of water used. It ensures the regeneration of the Ion exchanger. Its surface is initially covered with $ H ^ + $ ions, during desalination these are exchanged for $ Na ^ + $ ions from the water. If there are no more $ H ^ + $ ions on the ion exchanger, it becomes inactive. By adding $ HCl $, the $ Na ^ + $ ions react with the $ Cl ^ - $ ions to form the salt sodium chloride and the $ H ^ + $ ions ensure that the ion exchanger is reactivated.

Industry At the Pickling of steel can be removed by reaction with $ HCl $ rust and iron oxide:

$ Fe_2O_3 + Fe + 6HCl \ rightarrow 3FeCl_2 + 3H_2O $.

And in the production of organic compounds like PVC (polyvinyl chloride) the basic building block vinyl chloride is obtained with $ HCl $:

$ HC = CH + HCl -> \ rightarrow H_2C = CHCl $.

Also the production of inorganic compounds such as iron (III) chloride:

$ Fe_2O_3 + 6 HCl \ rightarrow 2FeCl_3 + 3H_2O $ uses hydrochloric acid.

Manufacturing

Hydrochloric acid has to be synthesized to produce hydrochloric acid. If this gas is introduced into water, hydrochloric acid is formed. In the laboratory, concentrated sulfuric acid is allowed to react with sodium chloride (salt), resulting in sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride:

$ H_2SO_4 + 2NACl \ rightarrow Na_2SO_4 + 2HCl _ {(g)} $

The sulfate ion in sulfuric acid displaces the chloride ion from its salt. Since $ HCl $ is gaseous, it rises and therefore becomes the chemical equilibrium withdrawn, so that this is almost almost on the product side.

In industry, hydrogen chloride is mostly produced as a by-product of organic synthesis:

$ RH + Cl_2 \ rightarrow RCl + HCl $

In rare cases, high purity hydrogen chloride is released through the Chlor-alkali electrolysis obtained, hydrogen is burned with chlorine: $ H_2 + Cl_2 \ rightarrow 2HCl $

proof

In school in particular, people are often asked to detect hydrochloric acid. This is what you do to yourself Acidic character advantage. Furthermore, the chloride ions can also be detected by adding a silver nitrate solution, because then a sparingly soluble silver chloride is formed that can be seen as a whitish precipitate. The reaction equation is written as follows:

$ HCl + AgNO_3 \ rightarrow HNO_3 + AgCl $