Is the scientific method different from science?

2.1 Methods, methodology and methodology

In German, three closely related terms can be distinguished, namely methods, methodology and methodology.

At the most general level, one can go under methodology the The entirety of the techniques of scientific procedures describe. In this sense one can speak of a methodology of evolutionism, diffusionism, functionalism or structuralism.

In contrast, on a more concrete level, Methods in two ways speak. On the one hand by Data collection methods (Questioning, observation, etc.), on the other hand by Data analysis methods (Content analysis, discourse analysis etc.). In cultural and social anthropology, there is often insufficient distinction between methodology and concrete methods, e.g. the method of constructing human lines of development in evolutionism or of cultural contacts in diffusionism.

In contrast to methodology and method, the term denotes methodology the Theory or teaching of the scientific methods, i.e. the methodology includes statements and criteria,

  • which method is suitable for certain applications
  • why a certain method is used and no other
  • why a certain method should be used for certain problems

The term methodology is often used imprecisely for methodology, such as in the statement "This investigation uses the following methodology."

To make matters worse, the conceptual distinction between methodology and methodology does not exist in other languages ​​such as English. The English term of methodology includes methodology and methodology.