Why was Nobunaga deceived by his generals?


















Introduction ................................ 2

1: The creation

Japan ............................................ 6

Early Japan .................... 7

The First Samurai .............. 8

The Gempei War .............. 10

The Early Shogunates ........ 11

Sengoku - The time of

fighting countries ............ 12

The last shogunate ............ 28

Story in

this game ........................ 29

The daimyo in

Shogun: Total War .............. 30

2: The Samurai .................. 34


The way of the warrior ........ 35

Weapons and armor ........ 39

Samurai associations ................ 46

Troops ........................ 50

Battle for locks

and fortresses .................... 56

Artillery .............................. 57

Fleet ................................ 58

Strategic units ........ 58

3: The land

The daimyo ........................ 62

Rebellions, peasant revolts

& Ronin .............. 65

Military facilities ..68

4: three samurai

Campaigns .................................. 78

A Tactical Revolution .......... 79


The battles of

Oda Nobunaga, 1560-1575 ...... 80

The battles of Toyotomi

Hideyoshi, 1582-1590 .............. 86

The battles of Tokugawa

Ieyasu, 1564-1600 .................... 91

5: The Mongols ............ 98

Who were the Mongols? ........ 98

Temüdschin ................................ 99

Kubilai Khan ............................ 103

The Invasion of Japan .................. 106

The Mongolian Army ............ 110

Mongolian units

in Shogun: Total War .............. 115

Collaborators ............................ 118

License Agreement .................. 118

Guarantee .................................... 120

Customer service ............................ 120


“If you know the enemy and yourself, you need the outcome of a hundred

Not to fear battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, you will

you suffer one defeat for every victory you achieve. If you are neither the enemy

even know yourself, you will be defeated in every battle. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Shogun: Total War - Gold Edition is largely set in the Sengoku period of the Japanese

History. At the moment you probably don't know how to classify this unless you are one

Connoisseur of feudal Japan. After reading this manual and enjoying the

You will understand, however, that the “Age of the Fighting Lands”, according to the

literal translation of the word Sengoku, among the most dramatic and exciting

Heard phases in the history of Japan. Or is the Sengoku period even that

most breathtaking chapter in world history ?!

“Act only after you have made arrangements; the one who will be the first to come

and Fern knows, will win - this is the art of war. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Over a period of about 100 years, huge samurai armies fought for the

Supremacy in Japan. At the head of these associations were the daimyo, powerful ones

Territorial princes with the power of a European king. Some of these daimyo were

undoubtedly true heroes, others cruel despots. But they had one

mean: your indomitable ambition. Now you, as a daimyo, also reach into the

merciless struggle for Japan. The shogun determines the fate of the country. He is

mightier than the emperor himself. The reward for a victorious ruler is immeasurable,

but the price you pay for your failure is high. The winner of this

The dispute is the new Shogun, the military ruler over all of Japan.

If you fail, the only way to protect your house from greater shame is through the seppuku


“Seeing victory only when everyone else sees it is not proof

excellent performance. Lifting a cobweb is no evidence of great strength;

Seeing the sun and moon is no evidence of a keen eye; the noise of the

Hearing thunder is no evidence of a good ear. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Neither the story nor the course of a battle are random. To the game

To understand better, you should read this manual first. You don't have to meet later

remember every detail (we will not test your knowledge). But only if you

understands why Daimyo A hates Daimyo B and why he has an alliance with Clan C.

want to enter, you can enjoy the game to the fullest. After all, you will learn that

different territorial princes of the country know - and who knows, maybe you can

the manual even help you become a shogun! Only when you think like a daimyo

you will win like a daimyo!


"He who knows when to fight and when not to win will win."

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

You have to put yourself in the shoes of a daimyo and the philosophy of Sun Tzu

understand. His work on the art of war is the key to your success. Follow her

of his teaching, you will one day triumph over your enemies and become the new shogun

rule over Japan!

“If you are surrounded, use ploy; you find yourself in a hopeless

Situation, fight. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Don't trust anyone. Watch your friends ... and especially your enemies!

Who Was Sun Tzu?

In Shogun: Total War - Gold Edition and in this manual you will find numerous quotes

The art of war, the famous work of the Chinese philosopher Sun Tzu. But

why was a Chinese philosopher so important several hundred years after his death

for the samurai of Japan?

“The good fighters of the past excluded any possibility of defeat

and then waited for an opportunity to strike the enemy. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Sun Tzu, a contemporary of the great philosopher Confucius, lived around 500 BC. in the

Kingdom of Qi, today's Shandong Province in eastern China. During his lifetime it was

China shook several wars when some of the country's republics fought against the

Central government of the imperial Zhou dynasty raised. As you will see later

this period of warlike turmoil is very similar to the Japanese Sengoku period.

Because of this, Sun Tzu was with the different facets of warfare

very familiar. Allegedly he wrote his book for Helu, King of Wu between 514 and 514

496 BC composed. Helu ruled the lower Yangtze Valley and waged a bloody war

against the neighboring kingdom of Yue. No more is known about the life of Sun Tzu.

Around 100 BC. wrote Sima Qian, one of his chroniclers, a biography in which he

describes how Sun Tzu convinced his king of his abilities as a general.

According to legend, Sun Tzu claimed that he could make anyone

to follow military instructions. So the king commanded him to be over the boldness of his

Subordinates amused to train his concubines to be soldiers. Sun Tzu divided the women

thereupon in two companies and put the favorite concubines of the king at the head of the

Departments. Of course, the women were anything but soldiers. As Sun Tzu his orders

they just burst out laughing. Sun Tzu said calmly, “If the

Command words are not clear and precise if the commands are not properly understood

then the general is to blame. " Then he patiently repeated his

Instructions ... unfortunately without success. When the women burst out laughing again, he said:

“When the commands are not clear and precise, when the commands are not correct


are understood, then the general is to blame. But when his orders are clear

and the soldiers still disobey, then it's the officers' fault. " Thereupon gave

he ordered the two women leaders to be executed. But the king who

had watched what was happening attentively, did not want his favorite concubines

to lose. He hastily assured Sun Tzu: “We are satisfied with your abilities. If we

If these two concubines are deprived, our food and drink lose their flavor.

We do not want them to be beheaded. " However, Sun Tzu replied, “After

Once I was appointed general by Your Majesty, there are certain orders that I have

can not accept. " The women were executed.

Lo and behold, suddenly the intimidated concubines obeyed all of Sun Tzu's orders.

Although the King of Wu deeply mourned his two favorite wives, he realized that

Sun Tzu knew how to lead an army and made him general.

Everything we know today about Sun Tzu and his way of thinking comes from his

Major work The Art of War. He was obviously a smart man ... a cool one

Thinker with military experience. Sun Tzu could fall back on his concentrated knowledge,

when he analyzed the problems and basic rules of warfare and his findings

wrote down. The result of his deliberations was a book in which for the first time in the

History of mankind the art of warfare was elevated to philosophy.

Of course, the book is much more than a "how to win a war" primer. The art of

War, as a study of warfare, treats all personal and international aspects

of a war. Sun Tzu assumes that a general who has all the idiosyncrasies of one

knows about armed conflict, is invincible and will triumph over its enemies,

without fighting a battle - a remarkable theory. Is even more remarkable

however, the fact that he actually achieved the stated goals in The Art of War

realized! His strategy is so clear and wise that it is sometimes too straight forward and

obvious, almost simple, appears ... and yet is correct.

“Oh you divine art of skill and stealth! Through them we learn

to be invisible, through them we are inaudible, and thus we hold the fate of the

Enemy in our hands. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

In Shogun: Total War, Sun Tzu's strategies and lessons are an important part of the

Gameplays. The game is based on Sun Tzu's philosophy, as are the daimyo and theirs

Samurai followed his teaching. The Japanese had the best and (for

they) adopted most useful ideas of Chinese culture without losing their independence

to give up. The Art of War was just one of many books published by the mainland

Japan and were eagerly welcomed by the Japanese. Maybe this is

one reason for the atrocities during the Sengoku period. If only one of the

read and understood the great daimyo Sun Tzu, the wars would probably be after

been decided in a short time. However, since all the warlords of the land Sun Tzu's work

had read, countless great strategists fought on the battlefields of Japan.

The samurai used Sun Tzu's wisdom in their own way, and so the Chinese merged

Philosophy over the years with a typically Japanese idea of ​​warfare.


“The way of strategy is to cut down the enemy. This is a necessity, none

Explanation is required. "

- Miyamoto Musashi, The Book of the Five Rings, Book of the Wind

Sun Tzu probably would not have approved of Musashi's apparent simplification of things!

Although the weapons have changed over the centuries, a military one stands out

Commanders face similar problems today. Sun Tzu's teaching has therefore today

same validity as centuries ago when the samurai were inquisitive about his work

read. To this day, The Art of War is regarded as the standard work of military strategy. The work

contains rules of warfare that are generally applicable even for modern commanders. All

great generals of the past centuries have read this great work.


1: The creation of Japan

“The art of war is vital to the state. she is a

A matter of life and death, a road leading to safety or to ruin

leads. Therefore it must not be neglected under any circumstances. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

"The time comes and there is a place where we have to cross arms."

- Miyamoto Musashi, The Book of the Five Rings, Book of the Earth

In Japanese mythology, the

People as the children of the gods

designated. Once upon a time the god Izanagi stood and

the goddess Izanami on the sky bridge and

thrust a coral spear into the ocean. As

they drew the spear out of the water and fell

some drops back into the ocean. These

Drops froze and formed islands. Now

the couple descended from heaven and

made the coral spear the center

their house. This was the hour of birth


The first child of Izanagi and Izanami was Amaterasu, the sun goddess. But as in

many families soon had problems ... divine problems: Izanagi being slain

second child, the god of fire, as he was severely burned to his mother at birth

had inflicted. Izanami then fled to the underworld. Susano-o, the second son, was

rampant and violent. He hurled lightning across the sky and threw it one day

an argument even a horse after his sister Amaterasu, who then turned into a

Cave hidden. Through the flight of the sun goddess, the earth was shrouded in darkness.

Only with a trick did the other goddesses and gods succeed in getting Amaterasu out of theirs

Lure Cave: They attached a mirror and necklace with precious jewels

a tree in front of their hiding place. Fascinated by her own reflection in the mirror, she left

Sun goddess her hiding place, and the light returned to earth.

Susano-o made up for his mistake by having a giant snake with eight heads and

Tails killed. The snake had a thing for young girls and sake. So lay down

Susano-o on the lookout with a girl and plenty of sake as bait. The snake fell

immediately on the sake. Susano-o waited patiently until the monster was drunk and

finally chopped it to pieces! In the tail of the snake he discovers a sword, which he is

made a gift to his sister Amaterasu. The name of the excellent blade

was Ame no murakomo no tsurugi or "rain cloud sword". At the beginning of the story

So there was a sword in Japan - a sword with magical powers.

As the firstborn, Amaterasu inherited the earth and sent her grandson Ninigi to the

People. This should rule over Japan. Amaterasu gave her grandson - as it were

to facilitate his task - three talismans: the mirror, the gems of hers

Necklace and the rain cloud sword. From that point on, these were three

Artifacts symbolize imperial power. Many years later his grandson became Jimmu


first earthly emperor of Japan. According to legend, he ascended the throne on February 11, 660

v. Therefore this day is a Japanese national holiday to this day. Today's Tenno

is a direct descendant of this first emperor.

Around the year 200 BC BC experienced the country under Tenno Sujin and his son, Crown Prince

Yamato (later Tenno Keiko), profound changes. At that time certain

countless clans the fate of Japan. The most powerful clan, however, was the imperial

Family of the family of the Yamato. The Yamato (named after their home province on

Honshu) claimed due to the direct descent from the sun goddess

Amaterasu ruled Japan for himself. As on the borders of the empire rebellions

broke out, Sujin was the first emperor to appoint four generals to line the four flanks of his

Should defend the empire. These generals received the title “Shogun” (“Crown General”).

Yamato Sujin, a partly mythical, partly historical figure, is the typical representative of the

Heroic Samurai of Later Epochs: A skilled warrior of noble descent who was born from

his enemies are hunted down and - although it ends tragically - dies an honorable death.

Early Japan

“In olden times the able warrior made himself invincible before going after the

Sought the weakness of his enemies. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Archaeological finds point to the mythical origins of Japan

to a Paleolithic life for the time about 100,000 years ago. The indigenous people

Japan, the Ainu, were brought to the island by the Mongols over the centuries

Hokkaido pushed back. The immigrants founded innumerable tribes and clans. in the

Over time, however, the Yamato clan rose from the centrally located Kanto plain to

strongest power in the country and united the former sub-tribes. The Yamato princes

consolidated their power by adopting an early form of Shintoism as a general religion

raised. Because it was actually easier to rebel against a warlord than

to defend oneself against the descendants of a goddess!

During the reign of the Yamato, influences from mainland China permeated the

Culture of japan. Thanks to the good trade relations with the Kingdom of Paekche im

southern Korea (favored by the short distance between the two countries

traders brought in iron, Chinese writing, and Chinese philosophy

the state of Yamato, all important documents from now on in Chinese script

composed. The first reliable evidence of Japanese historiography dates back to

from the year 430 AD. About 100 years later a new religion also spread, the

Buddhism, increasingly off. Japan's island location had two advantages: First, it got there

new cultures, technologies and new ideas in the country, on the other hand

unwanted teachings and influences held due to the distance to the mainland

become. The government structure of the country was therefore strongly based on the Chinese

Legal system: A large council called the Dajokan (with eight subordinates

Ministries), ruled the empire with the help of local governors. From 710 onwards, Nana was in

Yamato Province was the first permanent Japanese capital, Kyoto remained from 794 to 1868

imperial residence city.


Although the Yamato were able to maintain their supremacy into the 9th century, they moved

the emperors withdrew more and more from the daily government business. To this

The former rulers degenerated into mere symbols of power. The retreat

the emperor from political responsibility and the transfer of state tasks

to their subordinates led to the rise of the Fujiwara, the most important noble family on

imperial court. The emperor himself remained in power, but ruled the country

other. In 858 the Fujiwara prince Yoshifusa became the guardian of his one year old

Grandson (who had emerged from his daughter's association with the emperor)

certainly. The Fujiwara occupied all important posts at the imperial court and in the

Administration with relatives. Finally, in 884, Fujiwara Motosune rose to kampaku - dem

first “bourgeois ruler” - on. Barely a century later, the prevailed

most important ruler of the Fujiwara, Fujiwara Michinaga over the country. This married one

his five daughters with the five successive emperors and secured on these

Wise the power of his family at the imperial court!

Under the rule of the Fujiwara, an independent Japanese culture developed, the

slowly shed its Chinese roots. The reign of Michinaga will

hence also referred to as the period of classical Japanese literature. Simultaneously

the nature of the government also changed under the Fujiwara. Corruption and

Inability began to weaken the central government and more and more were formed

more feudal structures. Noble members of the government received payment

huge tax-free hereditary estates. Many farmers and landowners had to have theirs

Lands attached to these goods to meet the oppressive tax burden imposed on the

Management of public land was payable to escape!

The first samurai

"The way of the warrior is the unconditional acceptance of death."

- Miyamoto Musashi, The Book of the Five Rings, Book of the Earth

At the same time joined in the provinces

smaller combat groups together that the

protected feudal nobility. A military one

Führer could do like a European knight

through appropriate services in the booth

ascend a samurai. These samurai

were in the service of aristocratic

Landowners, rich aristocratic families or

mighty warlords. The term samurai is

Incidentally, a derivation of the old Japanese

Word for "serve".

The government quickly recognized the tremendous use the samurai could have in cracking down

of uprisings and rebellions. But by shifting the power structure too

The loyalty of the samurai also shifted in favor of the powerful landowners. These

now mostly fought against rival landowners, bandits and insurgent peasants.

Although some samurai were of low origins, the emerging clans were persecuting them

their ancestors often go back centuries and often referred to (distant)

Relatives from the ranks of the imperial family who were once expelled from the court,

and gained wealth and prestige. Two of these aristocratic samurai clans were


the Minamoto, in the east of the country, and the Taira, which ruled southern Japan.

Eventually, the samurai intervened more and more in government policies and fought

for supremacy in Japan. It makes sense to all political and military measures

and to look at events of the following decades, since this time the course for the

later history of the country - a history of unscrupulous power politics,

in which the winners won everything and the losers lost everything - including their heads!

In 1155 there was a crisis in the imperial succession. Two lived at the imperial court

former emperor and the ailing child emperor Konoe. When Konoe was poisoned

supported the Fujiwara Emperor Sotoku. Whose father, the former emperor Toba, existed

however, that his other son, Go-Shirakawa, should become the new emperor.

Thereupon he ascended the imperial throne. When Toba died in 1156, Sotoku and called

Go-Shirakawa their followers to the capital. The Taira and the Minamoto clan

finally fell out on the question of the succession to the throne. What was crucial, however, was that

henceforth the samurai decided the future of the government and no longer the Fujiwara.

In the years that followed, Japan was ruled by the sword.

“The way of the warrior is death. It applies to between life and death too

choose, it is the warrior's duty to face death. No more and

not less. The way of the warrior is determination. "

- Yamamoto Tsunenori, Ha Gakure (Hidden Leaves)

Sotuku's samurai suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Hogen. Emperor

Go-Shirakawa expected the beaten samurai to pay the price for their resistance

would pay. The only significant Taira samurai at Sotuku's side was with his

So unpopular with relatives that his execution came as no surprise. Minamaoto

Tameyoshi, the head of the Sotuku-loyal Minamoto family, became his orders

Son of Yoshitomo executed in an act of loyalty. Left his brother Tametomo

Yoshitomo mutilated and exiled him. Thereupon Tametomo (as one of the

first samurai) the ritual hara-kiri to save his honor.

Now the Taira clan managed to quickly expand its influence at the imperial court.

Finally, Emperor Go-Shirakawa was tired of ruling and thanked in his favor

Son Nijo. The leader of the Taira, Taira Kiyomori, declared himself first minister and

continued the Fujiwara policy. He also married his daughter to one

imperial prince and made sure that the emperor's concubines were also relatives of the

Taira clans were. The Fujiwara, meanwhile, tried those living at court

To induce members of the Minamoto family to take revenge - an idea that

was soon put into practice.

The second civil war from 1159 to 1160 was therefore a direct conflict

between the Taira and the Minamoto. Although the luck of war was initially on the side of the

Minamoto was down, the tide soon turned in the taira's favor. They attacked that

Headquarters of the Minamoto and provoked a counter-attack. The counterattack

however, the Minamoto failed because Minamoto Yorimasa refused to go into battle

to intervene so as not to violate his duties to the emperor. The survivors

Minamoto were then ruthlessly hunted down and slaughtered.


Minamoto Yoshitomo managed to escape with three sons. One of his sons, Tomonaga, was

but so badly injured that he begged his father to kill him so that he could get him faster

could flee. Although Yoshimoto complied with his son's request, he became

discovered and murdered in his bathroom when he believed he had escaped his captors.

Taira Kiyomori had the head of the Minamoto clan beheaded. Not even that already

dead Tomonaga escaped this humiliation: Taira Kiyomori had the body excavated

and behead too!

The Gempei War

“A good army should act like a snake. Hit her on the head and the

Tail will attack you; hit her on the tail and the head will get you

attack; hit them in the middle, and the head and tail will attack you.

When asked if an army can imitate the snake, answer with

Yes. Even enemies help each other when crossing a river in the same boat

and be surprised by a storm. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Taira Kiyomori seemed invincible. He had his rivals among the samurai

turned off and also defeated the Fujiwara. In 1180 his grandson Antoku became the newer

Emperor. However, not all Minamato had fallen victim to Kiyomori's lust for murder.

The survivors had found their old strength in the 20 years of his reign and

there was another uprising.

This civil war, the Gempeikrieg, lasted five years. (The name “Gempei” is derived

from the Chinese emphasis on ideograms in the clan names of the Taira and the

Minamoto ex). Again the Taira met the Minamoto and the Fujiwara on their side

now also the Sohei, fanatical monk warriors from the temples of Nara and Kyoto

Battle went on. The Sohei played one repeatedly in the later history of Japan

decisive role. Later on, different groups of monks were even one serious one

Threat to the ruling warlords. Even so, the Taira could control the armies of the

Initially crushing Minamato in the battles of Uji and Ishibashiyama.

It was not until 1183 that the tide turned in favor of the Minamoto clan. After Several

Great victories of the Minamato finally came in 1185 at Danoura

Decisive battle. In the Strait of Shimonoseki, the Taira and fleets met

the Minamoto one last time on top of each other. Colored itself in the course of the Battle of Danoura

the sea red with the blood of the slain Taira armies. Also the child emperor Antoku

was on board a Taira ship. After all, he symbolized theirs

Claim to power. When Emperor Antoku drowned, his (with a deep

Symbolism related) replica of Ame no murakomo no tsurugi, des

“Rain cloud sword” that the sun goddess once gave to the first emperor of Japan

had, forever in the inland seas. Fortunately, it was

Sword just a replica, yet the symbolic meaning of this loss was

catastrophic. After all, the emperors were considered by all clans they wanted to control

direct descendants of the sun goddess. Hence the emperor's symbolic meaning

just as important as his actual earthly power.


The early shogunates

“The one who attacks without looking for fame and withdraws without looking

To fear injustice, whose only thought is the protection of his people and the

Service is to his Lord, this general is the jewel of the kingdom. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Thanks to this military triumph, Minamoto Yoritomo was no longer on the political side

Diagonals instructed at the imperial court, which the Taira and the Fujiwara use

had. His power was based on his armies and no longer on family ones

Connections to the imperial family. After the emperor's abdication, he fulfilled

only a purely symbolic function. Yoritomo took the title and office of one

Seiitaishogun (Shogun for short), i.e. a supreme general. He also misplaced his

Manorial seat to Kamakura in the Kanto plain (near today's Tokyo). The

The imperial court remained in existence formally, but played none for the government of the country

Role more - The age of the shoguns had dawned.

Eventually the Hojo clan got through various conspiracies and assassination

of all heirs of the Minamoto and their followers to power. Instead of even that

To take over the office of Shogun, the Hojo appointed puppets (sometimes children)

as shoguns, in order to take over the actual power as shikken, i.e. rulers.

Formally the land was administered by shoguns in the name of a symbolic emperor,

while in reality a third person had the real power. The Hojo knew

that this power was more important than any title in the world.

Despite this grotesque constellation, the Hojo family ruled the country until 1333.

In 1274 and 1281 the Hojo succeeded in two invasions of the Mongols under Kubilai Khan

fend off. In 1281 the gods wind Kamikaze saved Japan from conquest by the

Mongols. The fight against the Mongols, however, had a fatal weakening and

a resulting decline in power of the Hojo within the empire led. This was

the reason for a revolt of the former emperor Godaigo, which took place in 1333 in the

Conquest of Kamakura, the capital of the Shogunate, culminated.

Godaigo's attempt to abolish the shogunate came about through the revolt of his vassal

Ashikaga Takauji foiled. He banished Godaigo from Kyoto and set one

Counter-emperor a. The War of Succession between Godaigo and his successors on the one hand

and the Ashikaga shoguns and their counter-emperors, on the other hand, shaped the country in the

following 56 years. It was not until 1392 that the (lawful) emperor abdicated and declared

his renunciation of the crown jewels and all imperial regalia.

This made the Ashikaga puppets the legitimate rulers of Japan. Nevertheless

the Ashikaga shoguns lost their power relatively quickly. After the murder of

Ashikaga Yoshinori climbed in 1441 and the untimely death of his eight year old son

whose younger brother Yoshimasa took the throne.

Although he remained a shogun for 30 years, Yoshimasa was able to see his family fall in power

don't stop. The shogun increasingly lost his power to other important samurai

Families belonging to a class of noble territorial princes (daimyo). It succeeded

Ashikaga shoguns never control the daimyo. This inability should the land in

overthrow a century of bloody conflict.


Sengoku - The time of

Fighting Countries

“Send your army into mortal danger and it will survive; send them to a

desperate situation and she will overcome it. People are at risk in the

Able to achieve victory.

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

The period between 1477 and 1615 is called the Sengoku period (roughly translated as “The time of

fighting countries ”). In this phase of cruel power struggles also mostly plays

Shogun: Total War-Gold Edition.

Today the short period of Ashikaga is considered to be the time of refinement of customs, in the great

artistic and literary works emerged. Buddhism also won among the

Ashikaga gaining importance as a political power. While the Ashikaga shoguns especially

interested in tea ceremonies and poetry, other forces tried to gain power

to tear yourself. The most influential samurai in the country were now powerful

Become a landowner. These men controlled and commanded vast estates

truly royal armies. The great daimyo era began!

The word daimyo means "someone who strives for better" - in the case of the daimyo, after

Makes! All of the daimyo were extraordinarily ambitious and the most powerful of them

dreamed of the end of the Ashikaga shogunate. This is quite understandable as the Ashikaga

were no longer able to direct the fate of the country. Ashikaga Yoshimasa

tried, for example, to abdicate as a shogun and relocated his armor in order to deal with the

Money to finance his expensive hobbies, such as flower festivals! This can be done in

in the daimyo 's eyes hardly the right pastime for a shogun.

Not least because of this, the shogunate lost to the rising and powerful daimyo

any authority.

Ikki and Ashigaru

"Meet disorder with order and impetus with calm."

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

But it wasn't just the daimyo who wanted to change the situation. Already at the beginning of the 15th

By the mid-19th century, the traditionally subjugated peasants had lost patience. In the large

and the whole thing threatened the peasants of the country - in contrast to the European peasants -

no danger from the armies passing by. Apart from destroyed fields or

With stolen grain, the war posed no existential threat to the peasants.

There were also murders, rapes, and conscripts for army service

rather a rarity.

But the peasants had another problem: the tax collectors of the shoguns, theirs

costly hobbies and elegant lifestyles they had to finance. Also drifted

the Ashikaga tax collectors have increased taxes to dizzying heights over the years.

There were times when farmers had to give 70% of their crop yields as taxes.

In view of this situation, the peasants were undoubtedly not on good terms with their masters.


But not only the farmers suffered from the Ashikaga. Also the Ji-Samurai, a class

“Better-off peasants” who fought in wartime and cultivated the land in peace,

were threatened in their existence by the oppressive taxes or asked for protection

of a daimyo - to whom they transferred their lands in return.

The situation only changed when the farmers and the Ji-Samurai formed combat units,

the Ikki, united. The general dissatisfaction with the rulers

finally culminated in several peasant revolts. In 1428 a revolt broadened in Kyoto

all over Japan. In 1441 the Ikki returned, driven by the burden of taxes and the

heavy debts, returned to Kyoto, and went through murdering and pillaging

the town. Only after a week of violence did the peasants owe their debts to them

Moneylenders and pawnbrokers issued by decree of the Ashikaga shogunate (which their

Relationship with the shoguns, who in turn were dependent on the help of the moneylenders,

undoubtedly heavily burdened!). The Ikki stood in 1447, 1451, 1457 and 1461

but again before Kyoto. In 1457 they even defeated an 800-strong samurai army, the

had opposed them!

“The way means to swear the soldiers to the goals of their general, to that

they go to their death fearlessly at his side. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

By joining a daimyo's army, a peasant escaped debt.

The only requirements for military service were armor and weapons - both

was available in abundance due to the country's longstanding wars. farmers

had little chance of advancement in the army, but at least they got them

always part of the booty. Soon these foot soldiers formed the Ashigaru (which literally

could be translated as “light feet”), an important part of the army, albeit

their discipline left a lot to be desired. The Ashigaru were notorious looters (da

they improved their wages in this way) with a significantly lower morale than that

true samurai. Nevertheless, the daimyo continued to intensify in the wars of the following years

Ashigaru to support the samurai associations. Over time, they developed

relatively “inexpensive” ashigaru even become a crucial instrument of power.

At this point it should be mentioned that the Ashigaru and Ikki the social structure and the

Permanently changed warfare; the phase of the so-called Gekokujo began

Rebellion of the “lower against the upper”. This development culminated in the Sengoku

Period when numerous (traditionally committed to absolute loyalty) vassals opposed

the ruling clans and powerful warlords raised to their places

to take.

In the turmoil of wars and the shift in the “natural order” of the Japanese

The Ashikaga shoguns had neither the rebels nor the peasants in terms of power

control powerful daimyo longer.

It was therefore only a matter of time before the situation would escalate.


The Onin War

“Act only after you have made arrangements; the one who will be the first to come

and Fern knows, will win - this is the art of war. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

The outbreak of the Onin War in 1467 marked the real beginning of the

Sengoku period. Which sparked the first year of Onin's reign (hence the name)

War raged almost exclusively in Kyoto, even after the Ikki uprisings

decades ago it was still the most magnificent city in Japan.

The war broke out when Shogun Yoshimasa - the same Yoshimasa who already had his armor

had pledged - appointed his brother Yoshimi as his successor and even decided to do so

fetched from the monastery. However, when his son Yoshihisa was born a year later,

Yoshimasa changed his mind again.

At the same time, the two rival families, the Yamana and the

Hosokawa for an excuse to declare war on each other. As there are two potential

There were candidates for the office of shogun, it was inevitable that both clans would

different sides fought. Yamana Sozen, who because of his temperament and

Called “Red Monk” his priesthood supported Yoshihisa while

Hosokawa Katsumoto Yoshimi, the brother of the incumbent shogun his loyalty

assured - an uncomfortable and difficult situation. After all, Hosokawa was standing

Katsumoto to his own father-in-law, Yamana Sozen.

Both sides rallied their armies in Kyoto. 80,000 samurai and Yamana soldiers

met the approximately 85,000 strong Hosokawa units. The troop strength

of both families shows the enormous wealth of Japan during this period. The number is even more

more amazing when you consider that the armies are armies of two clans

(and not about the troops of the whole country). At this point is a small one

Comparison permitted: In the Wars of the Roses, which took place around the same time in distant England

raged, the armies of the opponents existed (by Japanese standards

ridiculous) 12,000 men.

“When we are close, we have to make the enemy believe that we are far away

are; when we are far away we have to make him believe that we are near.

Lay bait and hit the enemy when they are surprised. "

- Sun Tzu, The Art of War

Neither side dared to take the first step, however, as neither family could afford it

could be branded a rebel by the weak shogun. Finally discharged

the voltage. Just as another 20,000 Yamana Army men went to Kyoto

marched, a Hosokawa estate mysteriously burned to the ground

Foundation walls down. Then the Hosokawa troops attacked one

Yamana supply convoy. A little later there were the first heavy fighting and im

July 1467 - two months after the outbreak of fighting - the northern part of Kyoto was already in

Rubble. Both warring parties holed up behind hastily erected barricades and

a war of positions, marked by raids and retaliatory measures, broke out in