How can Islamic and LGBTI communities reconcile
Aspects of Islamic Sex Morality Aspects of Islamic Sex Morality
Sexuality in Islam
Aspects of Islamic Sex Morality
Sexuality is still taboo in the Islamic world, but it is always present. Sexuality in Islam has a strong influence on Islamic ethics and legal doctrine as well as family and social life. Islam is one of the three monotheistic religions, which, however, in comparison to Christianity and Judaism, encompasses the entire life of the individual. Islam regulates, or defines in the sense of a religious-ritual principle, the interaction with one another in everyday life, in marriage, in the family and in society, as well as in the entire Islamic state itself. The most important legal sources of Islam are primarily the Koran and the Sunna. Both contain recommendations regarding sexual behavior in Muslim societies. These instructions / rules are discussed by so-called ulama or legal scholars in the form of reports for the Muslims. The so-called fatwas (reports) regarding sexuality end in a code of conduct. This regulates the handling of sexual intercourse between couples within and outside of marriage. But also with regard to homosexuality and artificial insemination.
Islam, sexuality, sexual abuse, artificial insemination, Koran, hadith, legal scholars, fatwa
Sexuality continues to be taboo in the Islamic world and is still present. The sexuality in Islam shapes the Islamic ethics and law as well as the family and social life very strongly. Islam is one of the three monotheistic religions, but in comparison to Christianity and Judaism it covers the entire life of the individual. Islam regulates, or defines in the sense of a religious-ritual principle, dealing with each other in everyday life, in marriage, in the family and in society, as well as in the entire Islamic state itself. The main legal sources of Islam are first and foremost the Koran and the Sunnah. Both contain recommendations regarding sexual behavior in Muslim societies. These references / rules are discussed by so-called ulama or jurists in the form of appraisals for the Muslims. The so-called "fatwas" (opinions) regarding sexuality end in a code of conduct. This regulates the handling of sexual intercourse among couples inside and outside of marriage. But also in terms of homosexuality and artificial insemination.
Islam, sexuality, sexual abuse, artificial insemination, Koran, hadith, jurists, fatwa
Both the Koran and the Sunna, as well as the legal scholars, affirm sexuality as a gift from God for procreation, but it also serves as a pleasure for humans. From this point of view, renouncing sexuality in life would contradict the divine order of creation and would therefore be deeply un-Islamic. Even if Islam also affirms pleasure in sexuality in addition to the principle of procreation, there is an endeavor to want to control the human sexual or sex drive. In order to control these sexual instincts, rules are required that prevent so-called fornication outside of marriage. According to the interpretation of Islam and depending on political motivation, these rules can be interpreted liberally, but also conservatively up to religious-extremist. So-called fornication can refer to togetherness, to the exchange of tenderness, in some countries already to eye contact or to shaking hands with the opposite sex. In some countries even using the phone or driving a car is forbidden because it is seen as fornication. In some Islamic countries, there is a strict separation of the sexes and a strict dress code, which serve to ensure that the so-called feminine charm does not come out. The consequence of this can be that there are separate schools or that swimming lessons are forbidden for girls and thus result in significant restrictions. The severity of sexual morality correlates with the degree of piety within the family. A violation in strictly religiously oriented families, especially women, can lead to serious consequences. This strict interpretation of sexual morality in many countries of the Islamic world, or in parts of some Islamic countries, leads to many people having secret relationships or evasive sexual practices such as prostitution.
2. Islamic sexual ethics and morals
But how strict are the Islamic sexual ethics and sexual morality in the scriptures? Or is it perhaps due to the so-called legal scholars who have dedicated themselves to the interpretation of the holy scriptures that this sexual morality is more strictly enforced than is the case in the holy scriptures? The fact is that it is true of almost the entire Islamic world that sexual behavior must conform to Islam. However, this affects both genders. In some countries the pressure on girls and women is much greater than on men. In Saudi Arabia and Iran, clothing is mandatory for women. In many other Islamic countries, however, not. However, in the other countries it is not the state that pays attention to compliance with these rules, but rather the family. Where the state does not intervene to regulate or sanction, the family usually takes on the role of the state. In most Islamic countries, care is taken to ensure that girls behave decently and unfortunately homosexuals and prostitutes in these countries are not only ostracized but also persecuted.
3. But what does this sexual morality actually look like in Islam?
Islamic ethics advocate sexuality. Islam does not know celibacy. For Islam, a voluntary renunciation of sexuality is a violation of divine laws. People in Islamic countries who voluntarily or compulsorily renounce sexuality are viewed with suspicion or pity. With regard to celibacy, the Qur'an makes it clear: “We then let our other ambassadors follow them. And we let Jesus, the son of Mary, follow and gave him the gospel, and we let mercy and monasticism take hold in the hearts of those who joined him. They brought it up (of their own accord). We didn't tell them to. Rather, they took it upon themselves of their own accord in pursuit of God's good pleasure. But they did not keep it properly. And we gave their wages to those of them who believed. But many of them were wicked. ”1 This Quranic verse refers to the sexual abstinence of Buddhist and Christian monks. Hence the famous saying of the Prophet Mohammed: “There is no monasticism in Islam”. Islam sees sexuality in the context of a marriage as a natural human determination, and even a duty for every human being. As a result, there shouldn't be people who live without sex because they haven't found the right partner. Hence, in most of the Islamic countries of the world, the choice of partner is considered a family matter. “Sexual intercourse and the sexual instinct are part of the natural disposition of most people [...] in order to preserve offspring and humanity [...]. If you turn away from it and hold back, you may be ill. This is how this person should be treated and seek healing. If there is no other option, you should therefore consult a psychologist. ”2
4. The Prophet Mohammed as a model of healthy Islamic sexual morality
The founder of the religion and prophet Mohammed emphasized the importance of sexuality in human existence in his sermons and speeches, but also through his own life. He himself married his first wife Khadijah in 595 AD, who was 15 years older than him and had already been married twice. Thus, his first wife was sexually experienced and at the same time, with this marriage, he signals that on the one hand the age of the partner is not relevant and on the other hand that a woman does not have to be a virgin or must have lived in abstinence in order to get married. Since the behavior of the prophet plays a fundamental role in the Sunnah, his marriage to a woman who has already been divorced twice and is older is exemplary and groundbreaking. His wife was not only divorced twice, but was also a very capable businesswoman and a great support to him. Thus the Prophet Mohammed signaled to the Muslims that a woman can get divorced, marry several times and be a business woman, just like the man. The Prophet remained loyal to this woman until her death in 619 and she was his only wife until her death. After that, however, the Prophet himself had numerous wives. Islam allows or allowed four women to marry for historical reasons. From a Muslim point of view, the permission to marry four women served only to care for war widows. The ideal prophet for the Muslims showed that an intense sex life is not only allowed in Islam, it is even recommended.
5. Sexuality and Purity
Islam distinguishes between the great and the minor impurity. The minor impurity relates to the emptying of the bladder and bowel, while the major impurity relates to menstruation in women and sexual intercourse in men. In both cases, both with the minor impurity and with the great impurity, a ritual cleansing, which is a whole body washing, is prescribed. Sexual intercourse is not allowed during the period of menstruation. Sexual acts are also not allowed between sunrise and sunset during the fasting period in Ramadan. In Islam, neither sexuality nor sexual dreams are inherently sinful, because sexuality is affirmed by Islam and because sexual dreams are beyond human influence and therefore cannot be prevented by humans themselves.
6. Sexual education among Muslim fellow citizens
In Muslim countries there is no sexual education in schools, especially not in Koran schools. Most of the time, the daughters are briefed by their mother or an older relative before they get married. In the case of sons, the information is provided by male relatives, but rarely by the father himself, because the feeling of shame is very pronounced. It is assumed that the new spouses will manage it anyway. After all, the parents of the bride and groom have not been informed either, and yet everything is fine. This principle has not changed in the Islamic countries to this day. As can be seen from the mass media, the sexual education of children with a Muslim background in Germany is difficult or impossible, because either the children do not go to class because of their upbringing or the Parents turn themselves on. Research shows that children of Turkish origin very rarely talk to their parents about sexuality (less than 10%). This is possibly due to the fact that the parents themselves were not informed about this. In principle, sexual education for children is not forbidden in Islam. This low value among Muslims of Turkish origin in Germany is more traditional than religious. However, the feeling of shame plays a big role in these families. The parents fear a loss of authority and the young people, on the other hand, do not dare to ask their parents about it.
7. Islam and homosexuality
At first glance, the answer seems clear. It is believed that there is only one answer to the question of how Islam as a religion relates to homosexuality. If you were to ask a devout traditional Islamic scholar, the answer could be that Islam rejects any kind of homosexuality. This means sex between men as well as between women. He would see such a kind of sexuality as a sin and a massive violation of the divine laws. Incidentally, this view is not only held by strictly traditional Islamic scholars, but also by moderate organizations who are of the opinion: "[...] Adultery is a grave sin, but homosexuality, i. H. their exercise, an even more difficult one. God condemned and punished the people of Lot, who were the first to practice homosexuality […]. ”3
Lot's story comes from the Koran.
8. But what does the Koran really say about homosexuality?
For the interpreter of the Koran, the situation is simple and clear. The people of Lot were the first to practice homosexuality and are therefore condemned. Others understood sexuality between the same sexes among the Lot people as a so-called boyfriend's love. However, a closer look at these texts and the commentators shows that the Koran does not speak explicitly of sex and certainly not of homosexuality and love for boys. Homosexuality and boyhood as well as anal intercourse are terms that cannot be found in the Koran. There is an Arabic idiom that reads “come to someone with desire”, which does not translate straight away with a sexual meaning. This can mean lust, desire, desire, but does not necessarily mean specific sexual acts. The Koran says that Lot's people are doing “what no one in the world has ever done before” or “as none of the people in all the world has done before you.” 4 This does not necessarily have to apply to sexuality but to the unethical behavior of this people in relation to other aspects. To conclude from this that this could mean homosexuality is vague and scientifically unsustainable. The Koran speaks to everyone personally and stimulates them to reflect. There is no need for legal scholars to bring the Holy Scriptures closer to people. The interpretation of these legal scholars has resulted in homosexuality being viewed as a sin and homosexuals being persecuted in Islamic countries. On closer inspection of the Qur'an, however, there is nothing to be found in any sura about homosexuality as a sin. However, it cannot be denied that homosexuality in most Muslim countries today has fatal consequences for those affected. The Koran goes on to say: “If any of your wives commit a disgrace, take four of you as witnesses against them and if they testify, shut them up in the houses until death approaches them or God gives them a way out . And those who commit it by you, punish both of you. But if they repent and do better, leave them alone, for God is forgiving and merciful. ”5 This sura was related to fornication and adultery by the classical Koran scholars. That means homosexuality, i.e. sexual intercourse between men and women. The old, traditional legal scholars see this as an invitation to punish homosexuality. Modern interpreters, however, see this sura as a non-homosexual penal provision.
9. Homosexuality in the hadith
It is true that the Koran is the most important source in Islam because the Koran is considered a direct revelation. The second important source in Islam is the Sunnah, i.e. H. the custom of the prophet. The Sunnah is made up of thousands of narration reports. Such a report is called a hadith. In the hadiths one finds sayings and behaviors of the prophet. Many, or the majority, of Muslims follow the behavior and the way of life of the Prophet. Hence the majority of Muslims are also called Sunnis. Undoubtedly, many hadiths put words in the Prophet's mouth indicating that he condemned those people who behaved like the people of Lot. But what is the behavior of Lot's people? Is it really homosexuality or a lack of piety? Obviously, homosexuality is equated with a lack of piety here. In Arabic there is the term “lutiya” or “liwat”. It comes from the word lots. Translated it is called Sodomia. This means anal intercourse in Arabic, while in Latin it means sex with animals. Thus, the hadiths used to condemn homosexuality could most likely relate to the sleeping of an animal. Sex between women is called friction or tribadie. Sex between women does not seem to play a major role in Islamic theology. No scholars are interested in this either.
10. Sexuality in real Islam
If you look closely at Islamic history, you will find that homosexuality was common. It should also be mentioned that there are passages in the Koran that are homoerotic. In the descriptions of paradise, especially in the Koranic descriptions of paradise, there are not only the big-eyed virgins, the so-called Huris, whose gender is not clearly defined in the Koran.Thus, when looking at some suras, they could be both male and female.6 For example, the Holy Scriptures read: “Guys who serve them (this means the Paradise dwellers) are as perfect in shape as if they were well-kept pearls would make the rounds among them. ”6 And describes life in paradise as follows:“ They lie comfortably together on couches with gold interleaves, while eternally young boys make the rounds among them with tankards and jugs full of wine and a mug full of spring water. “7
From this it can be concluded that homosexuality, both male and female, when referring to the Qur'an and not to interpretations by strictly religious and arch-conservative legal scholars, is not forbidden and not viewed as a sin.
12. Love and partnership in Islam:
With regard to love and partnership, there are no clear prohibitions in the Quran in this regard. In the Sunna there are hadiths that view and advocate love and partnership as divine and human. The Prophet is reported to have said: “My love belongs to those who love one another for my sake, who are together for my sake, who give one another freely for my sake, and who visit one another for my sake.” 8 The famous Ibn Hazm made the following comments : "Piety does not condemn love and the law does not forbid it, since hearts are in the hand of God, the mighty and exalted." 9 Something similar can be read in the Koran. There it says: “One of his signs is that he has created partners of yourselves for you so that you can find peace with them, and he has brought about love and mercy between you. Indeed, in that are signs for people who ponder. And his signs include the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and colors. There are indeed signs in it for those who know. ”10 From this it can and must even be concluded that love, partnership and sex can have different forms and that these are not always based on a certain form that is historical in nature or even for all time is traditional in nature. But this also means that there is room for homosexuality in this religion, apart from the fact that marriage in Islam does not require a blessing. The marriage is based on a civil contract between two parties, no clergyman is required.
However, one must distinguish between Islam itself and Islam that actually exists. In today's strictly conservative understanding of Islam, especially in fundamentalist circles, there will unfortunately continue to be no place for homosexuality. Overall, it can be concluded that Islam affirms sexuality, not only so that people can reproduce, but also so that people can enjoy themselves. Thus, from an Islamic point of view, and I am referring to the pure teaching and less to the real existing Islam, neither the age between partners plays a role, nor whether one of the partners has had several partners before, is divorced or no sexual experience at all Has. A rejection of homosexuality cannot be inferred from the Koran either.
For centuries, dealing with sexuality in the Islamic world was much more informal than in the Christian West. Although there have always been conservative ideas in the Muslim world, several discourses coexisted at the same time. It is undisputed that there were caliphs who had relationships with men, many Muslim scholars wrote homoerotic writings, others even wrote sex manuals. Prostitution was also taxed, but in itself it was not a problem. This practice was lived for centuries and existed alongside a religious discourse such as numerous mosques and Sufi orders. With the onset of colonialism, European sexual morality was adopted in large parts of the Islamic world. There are many Muslim scholars who today play an important role in commenting on the Koran, but who at the same time wrote numerous works on sex and eroticism. Unfortunately, very few Muslims know this today. Most of the norms that Muslims consider to be primordial Islamic today already existed in pre-Islamic times or were adopted by the Christian West. Compared to the Christian faith, Islam is much more open and relaxed with regard to sexuality. In Islam there were many forms of relationships with regard to sexuality which, unfortunately, were later forbidden. There were lesbian relationships, polygamy for women, open relationships. Compared to Christianity, as already mentioned, Islam was much more open. The Christian Orthodox tradition was clearly stricter and prudish than Islam. The reason why this sexual openness is changing in Islam in today's Islamic world can be traced back to colonialism on the one hand, during this time many Islamic countries took over the traditions and customs of the colonial rulers, on the other hand Islam was not just a religion, but one Ideology that was necessary as an antithesis to colonialism. This resulted or emerged the ideology of Islamism, which has established a very strict sexual morality in Islamic countries over the past 200 years. The Victorian notion of sexuality, which correlates with civilization, was adopted by these newly emerged Islamic nation-states with an Islamist ideology and is kept alive to this day. Love and the associated sexuality play an essential and also a very positive role in Islam. The famous mystic Jalaluddin Rumi says: "Where there is love, there is no I". In his poem Traumbild des Herzens he writes: “Loudly I click my fingers because I see him, and soon I bite my finger from the pain of love. I reach into a lake to catch the moon. Then the moon calls to me from above: I am in the sky. ”The Sufis understand love as the union with the divine.
15. Sexual abuse in Islam
The terms forced marriage and child marriage with regard to Muslim girls and women have undoubtedly dominated the discourse of recent years not only in Germany, but especially in Germany and the rest of Western Europe. The discourse was undifferentiated, generalizing and based above all on ignorance or dubious sources. It is undisputed that there is forced marriage in many Islamic countries, just as it is undisputed that there are still child marriages in some Islamic countries. Both forced marriages and child marriages are the exceptions. At the present time in most Islamic countries, including the entire North African countries, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Turkey and the Central Asian Muslim countries, not the parents are looking for the bride for their son or the groom for their daughter . Rather, with the increasing modernization of this society, arranged weddings are also very rare. However, in some countries, such as Saudi Arabia, arranged weddings are the norm.
Undoubtedly, the terms forced marriage and child marriage regarding Muslim girls and women dominated the discourse of recent years not only in Germany, but especially in Germany and the rest of Western Europe. The discourse was undifferentiated, generalizing and above all based on ignorance or dubious sources. It is undisputed that in many Islamic countries there is forced marriage, as it is undisputed that there are still child marriages in some Islamic countries. Both forced marriage and child marriages are the exceptions. At present, in most Islamic countries, including the entire North African states, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Turkey and the Central Asian Muslim states, parents do not seek the bride for her son or the bridegroom for her daughter, Rather With the modernization of this society, weddings arranged are very rare. However, in some countries, such as Saudi Arabia, arranged weddings are the norm.
16. The reality:
Although Islam and the Koran prohibit violence against women, including sexual violence, as well as against children and those under protection, it does happen that women are forced to have sexual intercourse against their will. This happens both outside and within the marriage, especially in countries where family structures are still very strong, such as B. in Saudi Arabia. But even in some other Islamic states, married women rarely have the opportunity to escape from a marriage that is characterized by violence and sexual violence. Many of these women submit to their fate and suffer severe mental illnesses, such as post-traumatic stress disorders and other psychosomatic illnesses. Others cannot withstand this violence and cannot find any mechanisms of the sewer system so that they try to suicide, often successfully to escape this violence, knowing full well that suicide is forbidden in Islam. There is indeed a culturally legitimized violence that is not religiously legitimized. However, it is fundamentally wrong to claim that women per se are outlaws in Islamic countries and have no rights so that the husband can dispose of them at any time.
17. Sexual abuse in the Koran schools:
However, if we address the issue of sexual abuse in Islam from a factual perspective, then we have to take a closer look at the social conditions in these countries. Schooling is compulsory in many Islamic countries. However, it is the case that not every family is able to send their children to school because they either need them as workers or because the school is simply too far away or because many families believe that the children are learn more in the Koran schools than in the city schools. While controls take place in the city schools and the teachers have a hard time sewing a child unsupervised, this is unfortunately not the case in the Koran schools. It is not uncommon for imams to abuse children in these countries. Child abuse itself is considered a sin in Islam and a massive violation of divine laws. If exposed, the perpetrator faces the death penalty. On the other hand, we know that those affected cannot and do not want to come out. On the one hand because the perpetrators of violence threaten them with death, on the other hand because the parents do not believe their own children. One must not forget that if a girl is affected and this becomes public, it will then be difficult for her to marry a man or to want to start a family in the future. The affected girl or boy knows that and the parents and the perpetrator also know that. Therefore, it is not uncommon, even if it is revealed, to be covered up and played down. In most cases, the parents withdraw their children from these Koran schools. However, if such acts of violence are not discovered, the child suffers from this ordeal as long as it attends this Koran school and also afterwards in the form of severe mental illness. Conversely, this does not mean that every imam is a violent criminal. Nevertheless, my own research shows that the number of unreported cases is very high. I was able to determine this both with German citizens of the Muslim faith who were born in their countries of origin and went to school there for a few years, i.e. attended Koran schools, as well as with refugees. Many of these people, who were traumatized on the one hand by the war and on the other by fleeing, also reported attacks in the Koran schools. Both men and women at a younger age were affected. Many of them are psychologically so badly affected that they are no longer capable of relational. Others, on the other hand, report severe nightmares, flashbacks, fears and pronounced problems falling asleep and staying asleep, so that they would rather die than live. But the fact that suicide is per se a sin prevents many from suicide.
18. Culture-sensitive contact points and therapy options:
It is doubly difficult for these people because, on the one hand, they can hardly talk about it, because there are far too few culturally sensitive contact points, i.e. contact points that are familiar with the cultural and religious backgrounds of these people, but on the other hand there is also a sense of shame It is pronounced that this topic is very often ignored by the patients who are affected. One learns about these events in a roundabout way. The direct question is rarely answered by the patient. It takes a long time to build trust and to understand this culture in order to be able to correctly interpret hints from the patient in order to be able or allowed to ask the right questions. It is not always beneficial for the sufferer or sufferer to address certain issues. This can lead to a psychological destabilization of those affected up to suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts or successful suicide attempts. Therefore, it is left to the patient whether they want to talk about it or not. However, the last 15 years of clinical work have shown that not only people who were born in Muslim countries and went to school there could be affected, but also those who went to the Koran schools here as children. Again, the pattern is very similar. Feelings of shame in the family prevent these children from turning to someone in time to escape this ordeal. Most of those affected already suffer from severe depression or personality disorders and not a few have already tried several suicide attempts. The drug consumption in this group of those affected is significantly higher than in the group of those not affected. However, it is important to differentiate. As mentioned earlier, not everyone is a pedophile and child molester. But the incidents in Germany over the past 15 years, which have hardly reached the public, have shown that action is required. This action could be such that in every Koran school, in addition to an imam, a social worker must be present during the lessons. This is how the imams can be controlled. Furthermore, the establishment of culturally sensitive care, i.e. a contact point, for both domestic / sexual violence against women, whether married or not married, i.e. in marriage or a relationship or for child abuse in the Koran schools and also in some families, desirable. The possibility must be given that those affected can live safely and are aware that they can also live safely so that they can talk about the incidents and deal with them in the context of therapy. Because if those affected come out and the family regards this as a shame or as a violation of family honor, then the person affected is in extreme danger. This is also one of the reasons why few dare to go public. Sexual violence particularly affects women who have been married off against their will through so-called family arrangements.
19. Sexual abuse in marriage:
Marital sexual abuse most commonly occurs among women who have been forcibly married. However, one has to know that the number of women forcibly married, contrary to popular belief, is not 50 or 70%, but 9 to
10%. That is still a very high value. This could be due to the fact that a distinction between voluntarily arranged marriages and forced marriages cannot always be clearly defined. It is difficult to really grasp the coercion and voluntariness of marriages. For example, in over 40% of the cases women with a Turkish migration background chose their partner alone. In around 48%, the spouse was suggested by relatives. Of the women whose partners had been suggested by relatives, 86% said they had agreed with the choice of spouse. By contrast, 18% felt they had been forced to marry at the time of marriage. This alone means that arranged marriages cannot predominantly be classified as forced marriages. However, in the case of arranged marriages, voluntary consent is questionable if in almost half of the cases the woman to be married did not have the opportunity to get to know the partner before the marriage. In a Franco-German study from 2005/2006 with a total of 5880 women of German origin, 380 women of Turkish origin and 380 women from countries of the former USSR, violence and sexual violence against women and in couple relationships was examined.The values for sexual violence and sexual abuse in marriage were highest among women with a Turkish migration background (37%) and significantly higher than among the other survey groups. The fact, however, that 29% of women of German origin have been sexually abused at least once, speaks for a high relevance of the problem, also in German couple relationships. In this study, violence and sexual violence by the relationship partner was highest among women of Turkish origin. Overall, the study showed that migrant women of Turkish origin were twice as likely to be affected by sexual violence by their current partner as women of German origin. Violence in combination with sexual violence was highest and also very significant among women of Turkish origin at 5.3%. One could conclude from this that men of Turkish or Muslim origin exercise and are allowed to exercise more control, dominance and psychological violence towards their partners. The study found that Turkish women with a migrant background are more controlled by their partners than women from the Eastern Bloc or women of German origin. However, this did not mean any controlling behavior on the part of the current relationship partner. The results of the study showed, however, that male dominance behavior in couple relationships definitely affects women with a Turkish migration background in a special way. However, this is more cultural and not religious.
20. The principle of equality in Islam:
The Pakistani political scientist Asma Barlas commented on the concept of equality in Islam as follows: “God is the only one and for this reason God is the only ruler and sovereign. Nobody else - prophets or kings or fathers or husbands - can claim sovereignty over others. ”11 From this conceptualization of God, according to Barlas, the Koran can only be read as anti-patriarchal. Barlas firmly believes that the Koran separates sex and gender. She said: "Not a single verse connects men and women in a specific division of labor or defines their roles as a function of their biology ..." 12. The Koran does not negate the biological difference between the sexes, but they are ontologically, ethically and morally equal, two halves of a single self. Therefore, the man does not have the right to treat the woman as he wants and certainly not to use violence or sexual violence against her. I also refer to the Koranic doctrine of creation, which, unlike in Christianity, assumes that women and men are not created in a subordinate manner from one rib. Rather, God created humans as a couple and the two parts of this couple are completely equal from the point of view of the Koranic teaching. Hassan commented on this as follows: “Woman and man, created equal by God […] became unequal in Muslim societies.” 13 Based on these statements, Mir-Hosseini asked the following question: “If justice and fairness are inherent in Islam, like legal scholars and all Muslims believe that this should not be reflected in laws that regulate relations between men and women […]? ”14 No Muslim will question that God is just. Male dominance cannot be derived from the Koran. It can be assumed that the Koran is divine, but that its interpretation is more human. Since patriarchy used to rule, the interpretation is accordingly patriarchal. The world in the time of the Prophet was patriarchal. This is clearly reflected in the sacred texts. Today the situation has changed. Women are not inferior to men. Thus, Quranic verses that emphasize patriarchy, where it says: "Men should be preferred over women, because God endowed the one with advantages over the other and also because those also received these," 15 lose their validity. This statement, however, relates to the time of the Prophet and the social conditions in Arabia at that time, because at that time only men were the breadwinners and providers of their wives. There are not a few eminent interpreters, such as Tabari and Al Rasi, who considered beating lawful if the wife opposed her husband, but they emphasized that no serious harm should be inflicted. But what is meant by obedience? Obedience to Husband or Obedience to God? Others, such as Muhammed Asad, interpreted the Koranic sources differently: “Disobedience includes any kind of deliberate bad behavior by a wife towards her husband and a husband towards his wife, including what is now referred to as mental cruelty towards the husband, it also means bad treatment of his wife in the physical sense. ”In the Qur'an the following can be read:“ If a woman has to fear rudeness (unkindness and neglect of marital duties) from her husband, it is not a sin to resolve this misunderstanding. Reconciliation is better than divorce. ”16 Alongside the Koran, the Sunna, the example of the Prophet Muhammad, is the most important guideline for Muslim action. The Sunnah is composed of thousands of hadiths. There are numerous forgeries among these hadiths. Mernissi commented on this topic as follows: "Since power was justified only by religion from the 7th century onwards, political and economic interests instigated the creation of false hadiths." 17 Muhammad himself is said to have said: "Best of you Men is the one who treats his wife best. ”“ The believing men and the believing women are one another's supporters; they should work for what is good and prevent evil. ”18 Consequently, it is forbidden for a man to give his wife in the To give orders on a daily basis, to humiliate them or even to use violence against them, be it physical, psychological or sexual violence. However, the reality is that in most Muslim countries women are disadvantaged. Quite a few use violence against women. This also includes sexual violence and sex against the will of the wife, lover, girlfriend. This also affects many women who live in Germany and have a Muslim migration background. While all kinds of violence against women are forbidden in the Koran and these sources are reinforced by the hadith, certain behaviors towards women have become firmly anchored in many of the traditions of these countries, so that it is initially difficult to eliminate them quickly.
It is undisputed that domestic violence and, above all, sexual assault against wives occurs in many Muslim countries. It is also undisputed that quite a few former and current students who visit the Koran schools have put up with sexual assault or even abuse. These people suffer from these incidents for the rest of their lives. However, they cannot express this suffering to their original family, parents, brothers, sisters, or to the new family, husband and his family. Because that would endanger the marriage on the one hand and the relationship with the parents on the other hand, as well as the relationship between the old and the new family. In addition, even if these women turn to the public or the family because of the severe suffering, they unfortunately do not receive sufficient support. It is said that the risk increases that they could suffer even more violence, on the one hand by the original family, who see their honor injured, and on the other hand, of course, with regard to the partner who also sees his honor injured. This is one of the most important reasons why affected women don't come out. As far as the children are concerned, there are hardly any contact points in this regard either in the Muslim associations in Germany or in the entire Islamic world. It is a taboo subject that is barely addressed, and when certain people bring this subject out into the open, they face reprisals, including physical violence and death threats.
22. Childlessness and artificial insemination among Muslims:
Every sixth married couple involuntarily remains childless. It is estimated that around 48.5 million couples worldwide are affected. It can be assumed that an even greater number of people will face it at some point in their lives. In about a third the man is the cause of childlessness, in a further third the woman. In the last third, either both are affected or the cause remains cryptogenic. If pregnancy does not occur within two years with regular sexual intercourse, the couple is considered sterile by definition (WHO). In Germany, this affects almost every 10th couple (BMFSFJ 2018). Childlessness means suffering and the emergence of depressive symptoms. Women in particular are affected and it is assumed that the psychological impairments caused by infertility are definitely compatible with one another, even in different cultures. While in Western countries couples affected by infertility can receive psychosocial counseling, this is rarely the case in Muslim countries. Counseling in western countries not only affects the life crisis, but also the next steps, such as adoption, sperm donation or egg donation. There are numerous fertility centers in many European countries and in recent years these countries have gained considerable experience in assisted reproduction.
Every sixth couple remains unintentionally childless. It is estimated that about 48.5 million couples worldwide are affected. It is expected that an even greater number of people will face it at some point in their lives. In about one third of the man is the cause of childlessness, in another third of the woman. In the last third, either both are affected or the cause remains cryptogenic. If, within two years of regular intercourse, there is no pregnancy, the couple is considered infertile by definition (WHO). In Germany, this affects almost every 10th pair (BMFSFJ 2018). Childlessness means suffering and the development of depressive symptoms. Women are particularly affected and it is believed that the mental health problems caused by infertility are compatible with each other even in different cultures. While in western countries, couples affected by infertility can receive psychosocial counseling, this is hardly the case in Muslim countries. The counseling in the western countries not only concerns the life crisis, but also the further procedure, such as an adoption, sperm donation or egg donation. There are many fertility centers in many European countries, and in recent years they have gained significant experience in assisted reproduction in these countries.
23. Childlessness among Muslim couples:
As already mentioned, childlessness causes suffering and pain in all cultures, but this unwanted childlessness is interpreted differently in different cultures. Since more than five million Muslims now live in Germany, it is absolutely essential that these counseling centers adapt accordingly and work in a culturally sensitive manner. Many Arab couples travel from Islamic countries, if they can afford it, to Spain or the Czech Republic or to Iran to undergo artificial insemination.
24. Islam and reproductive medicine:
But are these reproductive medical procedures even allowed in Islam? Basically, Islam is positive about such an approach or such an intervention, which helps to turn childless married couples into parents. The religious discourse on this began in the 1970s. It was primarily about surplus embryos that are to be made available for embryo research. Only on condition that the scientific methods correspond to Islamic ethics does Islamic teaching endorse reproductive medicine "as an achievement if it serves the good of mankind and avoids damage and disease." 19. The Koran demands: “Faith should make it easy for you, not difficult.” And it goes on in the Koran: “We made man out of a portion of clay. We then made it a drop in a sturdy container. Then we made the drop into a clot of blood, that into a clump of flesh, and that into a bone. And we covered the bones with flesh. Then we let him emerge as a new creature. ”20/21 The time of the animation is not clearly defined in the Koran, so today's statements in Islam are based on so-called hadiths. The following can be found there: “For all developmental stages up to the breathing in of the soul, that is, from seed drops to the embryo to the fetus, 40 days are scheduled.” According to this, it takes 120 days for human animation. “Truly one of you is brought together as a seed for 40 days with regard to his creation in his mother's womb, then he is a blood clot for just as long, then a lump of flesh for just as long, then he sends the angel to him and blows his soul into him. And he orders four words to be written down: his livelihood, the date of death, his actions and damned or blessed. "22
As a result, the IVF / ICSI procedure or PGD with discarding embryos before the 120th day can be used without any problems. However, there are other scholars who believe that human life begins with the fusion of sperm and egg. These are based on the Koran. 23 It says that God created man in the best of form. As a result, these scholars see the discarding of an embryo, even without ensouling, as part of an IVF / ICSI treatment or PGD treatment, as an abortion. Therefore, from the point of view of these people, artificial insemination is fundamentally prohibited. Legal scholars who advocate artificial insemination have certain conditions. Since the lineage within the Muslim family, but also within the Islamic world as a whole, enjoys a high priority, the descent from a father must be guaranteed so that his tribe is maintained. Therefore, many legal scholars demand that such interventions are only carried out in reproductive medicine institutes that can guarantee that there can be no confusion. For the Sunnis, the purity of the paternal line is central, so sperm donation is out of the question for them. Furthermore, they see procreation among people who are not married to one another as a punishable offense and even as adultery.
26. Sperm donation in Shiitism:
Shiitism, on the other hand, sees it differently. He definitely advocates a sperm donation or he offers a temporary marriage as part of his teaching. This attitude, which Ayatollah Khamenei also advocates, is based on the fact that childlessness can lead to massive marital problems, which Shiitism wants to prevent. Also, because fertilization takes place outside the body, it cannot be considered adultery.
27. PGD in Islam
PGD treatment is advocated by many in the Islamic world. On the one hand, on the grounds that PGD was God's will, otherwise it would not be possible (KADDOR 2011). In addition, this intervention is considered to be justified in the presence of serious genetic diseases, since the animation only takes place after 140 days.
The point in time of the ensouling, which does not take place until after 140 days, is decisive for the implementation of an artificial insemination. Before that, from an Islamic point of view, artificial insemination can be carried out without any problems. Islam also advocates PGD before ensouling because it serves the benefit of Muslims. IVF / ICSI are advocated by Islamic scholars, but also by Islamic teaching itself, insisting that these interventions take place in very experienced centers in order to prevent mix-ups. Sperm donation is not permitted among the Sunnis. On the other hand, it is allowed in Shi'aism. Otherwise, in Shi'aism, sterility will be circumvented for a period of time. However, in Islam children always remain assigned to their biological parents and in Islam cannot be adopted instead of children. Also with regard to artificial insemination, Islam or Islamic teaching does not represent a hurdle. Quite the contrary. Artificial insemination can be carried out in Islam without any problems.
Crucial for the execution of an artificial insemination is the time of inspiration, which takes place after 140 days. Before that, artificial insemination can be carried out without problems from an Islamic point of view. Also, Islam advocates PID from being inspired because it serves the good of Muslims.IVF / ICSI are advocated by Islamic scholars but also by Islamic doctrine, insisting that these interventions be done in very experienced centers to prevent confusion. Sperm donations are not allowed with the Sunnis. On the other hand, it is allowed in Shia. Otherwise, infertility will be bypassed in shiitism over a period of time. However, in Islam, children are always assigned to their biological parents and cannot be adopted on the child's behalf in Islam. Even with regard to artificial insemination, Islam or Islamic teaching is no obstacle. On the contrary. Artificial insemination can be performed easily in Islam.
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7. Barlas, Asma, “Believing Women” in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an (University of Texas Press, 2002)
8. Alwi, Abd al amīd, al-Zauj al-marbū, Baghdad, 1964.
9. Baron, A. M., 'Mariages et divorces à Casablanca', Hesperis, 40, 1953, pp. 419-40.
10. Boellstorff, Tom. 2005. Between Religion and Desire. Being Muslim and Gay in Indonesia. In: American Anthropologist 107 (4), pp. 575-585.
11. Borek, Abdullah Leonhard (ed.): Islam in everyday life. A handout for German-speaking Muslims. [O.O.]: Al Kitab Verlag, 1999. - [Published “On behalf of and in cooperation with the German Muslim League e.V., Hamburg”. - p. 182 on homosexuality, from this the quote above section 1.]
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20. Halm, Heinz, Islam: past and present; P.11
21. Hefner, Robert. 2009. Introduction: The Politics and Cultures of Islamic Education in
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23. Yaḥyā Ibn-Šaraf an-Nawawī, The Book of Forty Hadith, 1st ed., Ed. and from the Arab. trans. by Marco Schöller, Frankfurt am Main: Verlag der Weltreligionen, 2007, 53-57.
24. Krämer, Karin (2008): Was Mohammed a feminist? Interview in Berliner Zeitung on August 13, 2008
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29. Nils Fischer, The Status of the Embryo in Islam, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.V., Sankt Augustin / Berlin, 2014, p. 18.
30. Preimplantation Diagnostics (PGD) from an Islamic perspective - Statement at the hearing of the Committee on Health in the German Bundestag on May 25, 2011
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33. Ridha Raschid, Tafsīr al-Manār, Cairo, 1948, 12 vols.
34. Rönicke, Katrin: Sex.
35. See also Rispler-Chaim 1993, 8; see also Ilkilic 2006, 148.
36. Tabari, Jamā 'al-bayān fi tafsīral-Qurān, Cairo, 1321h., 30 vols.
37. Veronika Lahodinski, Medical Ethics at the Beginning of Life in the Abrahamic Religions, University of Vienna 2015, p. 72.
38. Wadud, Amina (1999): Quran and woman. Reading the sacred text from a woman’s perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1. Sura 57, verse 27
2. Veronika Lahodinski, p. 72
3. Borek 1999; P.182
4. Sura 7, verse 80; Sura 29, verse 28
5. Sura 4, verses 15-16
6. Sura 52, verse 20; Compare Sura 56, verse 22 and Sura 52, verse 24
7. Sura 56, verses 15-18
8. Al-Qari, p.20, no.25; At-Tabrisi p.426
9. The pigeon's collar, p.9
10. Sura 30, verses 21-22
11/12. Barlas, 2006: 5; 2006: 6
13. Hassan, 2004a
14. Mir-Hosseini 2004
15. Sura 11, verse 35
16. Sura 4, verse 129
17. Mernissi 1992: 17
18. Sura 9, verse 71
19. Nils, Fischer p.18
20. Sura 2, verse 185
21. Sura 23 verses 12-14
22. Veronika Lahodinski, p. 72
23. Sura 95, verse 4
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