Who was Edwin Howard Armstrong

The medium of radio and its development. Analysis of the propaganda effects

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 The origin of the term radio

3 The German term for broadcasting: radio

4 The inventors and development of the radio
4.1 Heinrich Hertz
4.2 Johann Philippe Reis and Alexander Graham Bell
4.3 Thomas Alva Edison
4.4 Guglielmo Marconi
4.5 Nikola Tesla
4.6 Alexander Stepanovich Popov
4.7 John Ambrose Fleming
4.8 Lee de Forest
4.9 Leo Hendrik Baekeland
4.10 Edward Christopher Wente
4.11 Hans Carl August Friedrich Bredow
4.12 Edwin Howard Armstrong

5 radio technology
5.1 Phase 1: The beginnings of the radio
5.2 Phase 2: The new beginning after 1945
5.3 Phase 3: The radio of the future
5.3.1 Terrestrial radio
5.3.2 Radio Data System (RDS)
5.3.3 Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)
5.3.4 DAB +
5.3.5 Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM)

6 propaganda
6.1 Propaganda radio in the Third Reich
6.1.1 The Volksempfänger alias "Goebbels-Schnauze"
6.1.2 German war propaganda in the Second World War
6.1.3 The enemy broadcaster - The British BBC
6.2 Post-war radio
6.3 Propaganda in the GDR

7 The medium of radio through the ages

8 A radio play becomes famous

9 Bibliography

9.1 Internet sources

10 List of Figures


First of all, I, Sebastian Engel, would like to thank my head teacher, Prof. Mag. Josef Hackl, for your cooperation and helpfulness. I came to this topic one day when I was reading a chapter in one of my history books out of personal interest, which treated among other things the historical development of the radio medium. I witnessed an article in which it was written that the first regular radio broadcast in Austria was not recorded until 1924.1

But it was not the very first broadcast in the German-speaking area, it took place in Germany on October 28, 1923, with the words2 "Here is Berlin, Voxhaus". (Bredow, 1923) The fact that the first regular radio operation did not take place until 1923 amazed me so much that I was so interested to read on and so began to research it on the Internet.

When the choice of departmental work was finally up for discussion, I remembered this topic, which was very interesting for me, and began to play with the idea of ​​dedicating my departmental work to the radio medium with all its developments and propaganda effects.

I hereby declare that I have created my technical work independently, without having used unauthorized aids and templates.

Ried, on February 25, 2014


The term radio is based on a derivation of the Latin word "radius" (= beam) 3 and on an English development of it, namely "radiation" (= emanation). The term “radio” has therefore probably expanded from Great Britain to the whole world. The Briton of Italian descent Gugliermo Marconi (1874 - 1937) made a significant contribution to this. Its early developments towards the emergence of radio technology played a major role in the spread of the English term.4

The term radio was also used earlier in the US-American language area. This is thanks to the American inventor Lee de Forest, who used the word radio in America to refer to the propagation of radio waves.5

In the pioneering days of wireless communication technology, radio technology was referred to as "wireless telegraphy" or "wireless telephony".6

The term radio was used very often for different phenomena and applications outside of the communication area. Combinations with the word “radio” gave rise to the terms “radioactivity” or “radiologist”, for example. These terms are not directly related to the radio medium, but they all have one thing in common, namely radiation. Such ambiguous terms have survived to this day.7


Initially, the terms radio and radio were used synonymously, later radio was also referred to as radio or audio broadcasting to distinguish it from the new medium television. Since then, the term radio has been inextricably linked with the term radio, both terms are sometimes used synonymously, sometimes differentiated again. The internationally better known term for the German word "Hörfunk" is the term radio.8

The term “radio” for the radio medium was almost completely lost with the further development of radio technology, the term radio gradually established itself and replaced the term for the radio device from 1923-1924.9 In the past, the addition “radio” was used because the type of radio signal generation that was common in the early days was due to spark discharge. 10

However, it is not sparks but waves that emit from the transmitter systems.11 However, the term radio is erroneously used as a derivation from broadcasting, up until today, especially in the "official" language, for example in legal texts.12 Or, for example, when radio is understood to mean the receiving device, but radio refers to the program received with it.

The term radio is a global term that is available in many languages, but is described differently in many cultures.


Many inventors played an important role in the development of the radio, some played an unconscious role, others a conscious one. The researchers, physicists, Nobel Prize winners, entrepreneurs and inventors named here have made a significant contribution to the development of the radio device as we know it today. Many inventors are named here who claimed to be the real inventor of the radio, but who patented their invention too late or not at all. Therefore, similar to the invention of the telephone, the majority of the radio can also be said to be inventors.


Heinrich Hertz (born February 22, 1857 in Hamburg; January 1, 1894 in Bonn) was an important German physicist.13 This German physicist and professor should be named first, because it was Hertz who was the first to experimentally demonstrate the identity of the electromagnetic light oscillations assumed by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Thanks to the discoveries Hertz ‘became

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through him, laid the foundation for the development of wireless telegraphy and radio.

He generated radio waves for the first time. The unit of frequency was named after him. Without his discovery of electromagnetic waves in 1888, all of the radio electronics would be inconceivable today.14


From 1858 to 1863, Johann Philipp Reis invented the first functioning device for electrical sound transmission by converting acoustic sound waves into electrical impulses.15 He gave his invention the name "Telephone". 16 After Reis died, the American entrepreneur Alexander Graham Bell used his knowledge of basic research. Bell benefited from the German invention and experimented with Reis' telephone set. Bell had previously stolen the invention of the Italian American Antonio Meucci and his telephone. Bell works in the former Meucci workshop and came across its materials and documents there. Meucci protested and demanded his invention back, but Bell, who was able to raise the necessary capital as a large entrepreneur, registered this invention as a patent in his name. Bell was in a hurry to file the patent application because he knew there were several other inventors who were also working on the invention of the telephone. It so happened that although Bell owned the sole patent right to the telephone and was therefore considered the actual inventor of the telephone, his alleged invention of Bell's telephone could only be described in a very vague way in contrast to another inventor named Elisha Gray. Elisha Gray was able to describe his invention in detail before the patent office, but unfortunately Bell's lawyer had arrived two hours in advance with his patent application. Another difference between the Gray Bell s and Bell s telephones is the fact that the Gray s s telephone was already more usable in 1876 because it worked in contrast to the Bell s telephone. The Bell ‘sche telephone, on the other hand, was not operational until 188117


Thomas Alva Edison (born February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio; '18.

October 1931 in West Orange, New Jersey) was an American inventor and entrepreneur.18 Edison improved the so-called Bell ‘phone, but the improved phone still required a wire as a conductor. In the years 1876-1880 he invented the microphone and the megaphone.19 Just as with the invention of the telephone were also with the invention and development of the microphone in the course of the

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Several inventors worked for decades. In addition to the researchers already described, such as Alexander Graham Bell and Johann Philipp Reis, the researchers Fritz Sennheiser and Emil Berliner were also involved in the development of the microphone.20


Guglielmo Marconi (born April 25, 1874 in Bologna; July 20, 1937 in Rome) was an Italian radio pioneer, entrepreneur and Nobel Prize winner. 21 Wireless broadcasting is based on the aforementioned discovery of electromagnetic waves by Heinrich Hertz in 1886, but Guglielmo Marconi was the first to apply this discovery to the transmission of telegraphic messages. Marconi

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carried out numerous attempts to transmit radio waves over a greater distance in order to send messages via the electromagnetic waves. In the public consciousness, then and now, Marconi is considered to be the inventor of the radio, as he made the spectacular wireless telegraphy connections over a distance of five kilometers in 1897, over the English Channel in 1899 and over the Atlantic in 1901.22


Nikola Tesla or Nikolaus Tesla (born July 10, 1856 in Smiljan, Old Austria; January 7, 1943 in New York, USA) was an inventor, physicist and electrical engineer. 23 Tesla was regarded as a radio pioneer from the very beginning; he devoted himself intensively to the idea of ​​wireless energy and communication transmission; the technical foundations of broadcasting were invented and patented by himself in the late 19th century. A fire in 1895 destroyed Teslas

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already finished system. Since then, the invention of the radio has often been attributed to Guglielmo Marconi.24


Alexander Stepanowitsch Popow (born March 4th / March 16, 1859 in Turjinskije Rudniki; July 31, 1905 / January 13, 1906 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian physicist and pioneer of radio technology.

On May 7, 1895, Alexander Popov presented a technology with which for the first time in front of the State University of Saint Petersburg

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he could receive electrical vibrations over long distances. The Russian Popow in 1896 transmitted the words "Heinrich Hertz" to a receiving station 250 meters away using his experimental set-up. In June 1896, the Italian Guglielmo Marconi patented a scheme that repeated the publications previously published by Popow. This moved Popov to present the facts in more detail in the Russian and international press. As the inventor of the radio, however, Marconi remained in the public consciousness.25 Popow was honored for his pioneering work at the Paris Electrotechnical Congress in 1900.26


The Englishman John Ambrose Fleming (born November 29, 1849 in Lancaster, Lancashire; April 18, 1945 in Sidmouth, Devon), sometimes also called Ambrose J. Fleming, invented another important prerequisite for the development of radio, an electron tube for the wireless message reception.27 The American inventor Lee De Forest improved Ambrose Fleming

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Electron tube, which was later to be used to amplify electrical signals. Fleming therefore accused De Forest of copying. Because of the achievements in wireless telegraphy and electrical measurement technology, Fleming was knighted in 1929. In 1933 he was awarded the Medal of Honor by the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE).

The American inventor Lee de Forest developed the gas-filled Audion tube, the forerunner of the high vacuum triode, a 3-electrode tube with which weak electrical signals could be amplified. To do this, he used the electron tube invented by John Ambrose Fleming and applied for a patent on October 25, 1906.29

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But it was not until 1913 that the factory production of high-vacuum radio tubes began. These were from

H.D Arnold in New York used it successfully as an amplifier in telephone technology.30


The Belgian chemist and inventor Leo Hendrik Baekeland (born November 14, 1863 in Gent, Sint-Martens-Latem; February 23, 1944 in Beacon, New York) invented the first fully synthetic, industrially produced plastic called Bakelite between 1905 and 1907 .

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1 Wolfgang, Zwangsleitner / Yanko, Lubienski [including: Gerhard, Huber / Erlefried, Schröckenfuchs], "Once and now 2", 2nd edition, Vienna: E. Dorner Verlag 2010, p.66.

2 Christiane, Gorse / Daniel, Schneider: History of the radio. http: //www.planet-wissen.de/kultur_medien/radio_und_fernsehen/geschichte_des_radios/, November 9, 2013.

3 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erfindung_des_Radios, November 9, 2013.

4 Hans J, Kleinsteuber: "Radio - An Introduction" 1st edition. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2012 pp 16-17.

5 Rainer, Steinführ http://www.oldradioworld.de/radiodef.htm, February 10, 2014.

6 Ibid.

7 Ibid.

8 Kleinsteuerber, "Radio - An Introduction", p.34.

9 Rainer, Steinführ. http://www.oldradioworld.de/radiodef.htm 10.2.2014.

10 Ibid.

11 Kleinsteuerber, "Radio - An Introduction", p.22.

12 Ibid.

13 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Hertz, February 10, 2014.

14 Gerhard, Weichhaus: The inventors of the radio. Interesting facts about the development of the medium. http://www.helpster.de/die-erfinder-des-radios-wissenswertes-zur-entwicklung-des-mediums_145225#anleitung, 28.12.2013.

15 Compare: http: //www.handwerksmuseum- suhlendorf.de/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=53&Itemid=64, December 28, 2013.

16 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Graham_Bell#Alexander_G._Bell_und_das_Telefon, February 10, 2014.

17 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Graham_Bell, 10.2.2014.

18 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Alva_Edison, February 10, 2014.

19 Compare: http: //www.handwerksmuseum- suhlendorf.de/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=53&Itemid=64, December 28, 2013.

20 See: http://mikrofon.org/das-mikrofon/geschichte-des-mikrofons, February 10, 2014.

21 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi, February 10, 2014. had a similarly structured test arrangement patented in June 1896 and he already did

22 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geschichte_des_Hörfunks, 3.1.2014.

23 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Tesla, 9.2.2014.

24 Ibid. contributed significantly to the development of the radio with the invention of the antenna. March 24th

25 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Stepanowitsch_Popow, 3.1.2014.

26 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geschichte_des_Hörfunks, 3.1.2014.

27 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elektronenröhre, 3.1.2014.

28 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ambrose_Fleming, 3.1.2014. 4.8 LEE DE FOREST

29 See: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_De_Forest, 4.1.2014.

30 Compare: http://books.google.at/books?id=gjgmmY1S1uUC&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=Hochvakuum- Radior% C3% B6hren & source = bl & ots = m- mOF8giWr & sig = 9yIQVwoJ38jFUWc9crJIDPUs3a = 0CEUQ6AEwAw # v = onepage & q = high vacuum wheel ior% C3% B6hren & f = false, 1.2.2014.

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