What was your class prank

The class strings project from the perspective of the children involved. Thesis


1 The class strings project from the perspective of the children involved Diploma thesis for the diploma examination in the degree course in music education, major in general music education for the area of ​​classical music at the Cologne University of Music, presented by Susanne Nögel on


3 Appendix (on CD) Questionnaire 2nd class Questionnaire 3rd class Questionnaire 4th class (active) Questionnaire 4th class (former) Interview guidelines Nine interview transcripts Interview codes complete Interview codes Occurrence complete

4 1 Introduction The class strings project started as a model in the school year 2004/05 at the community elementary school (GGS) Balthasarstraße in Cologne in cooperation with the Helmut Behn Foundation and the Cologne University of Music, which were led by Prof. Claudia Meyer was represented as project manager. GGS Balthasarstrasse has been independently continuing the project since the 2007/08 school year. The Helmut Behn Foundation and the Cologne University of Music started the model in the 2007/08 school year at another primary school in Cologne, the Mathilde von Mevissen School. This school should also be able to continue the project independently after two years of cooperation. In July 2008, a total of around 190 pupils took part in the class strings model. When developing the class string model, Claudia Meyer oriented herself towards the principles of her department, elementary music education (EMP). The focus of the model is on elementary music-making with string instruments. In order to reach many children with the class string model, it takes place in the morning area of ​​the elementary school. Through the cooperation with the foundation and the university, the school has the opportunity to offer all children continuous musical education on the instrument, to enrich cultural school life and to expand the school's profile with regard to a musical focus (Meyer o.j.). In order to be able to carry out the class strings model in the regular lessons of elementary school, the second music lesson is converted to this. Therefore, the lessons of the class strings model must be based on the primary school curriculum of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Because an entire school class makes music, there is also a reference to so-called class music-making. Class music-making refers to activities and forms of action in music lessons in general schools. Special forms of making music in a class are instrumental classes that focus on a specific set of instruments. In addition to wind, keyboard, flute, percussion and singing classes, there are also string classes. Through the use of string instruments, the class strings model also moves into this context. String class lessons are now present in elementary and secondary schools. With the internet search engine Google you can find 4

5 termed string class around entries in August 2008, in September there are already, of which at least the first pages are mainly school websites that provide information about their projects. The website lists 35 schools in Germany that teach according to the Rolland method, and the 07/2008 edition of the Neue Musikzeitung contains numerous articles and information on the subject, including the 2nd congress on string teaching in Berlin. Basic musical training is part of the EMP department. Lessons take place at music schools and, like the class strings model, are aimed at primary school children. The Association of German Music Schools (VdM) has developed a curriculum for this. In the class string model, the basic musical training is transported from the afternoon area to the morning area of ​​the elementary school and combined with an instrumental focus on string instruments. Music in elementary school is currently also of political importance. The Ruhr area is currently receiving special attention, where the project Every Child An Instrument (JeKI) is intended to give every child in the greater Essen area the opportunity to learn an instrument. Under the patronage of Federal President Horst Köhler and with the support of NRW Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers and Minister of State for Culture Bernd Neumann, a total of 50.63 million euros will be used (one instrument for each child, program description). Another model is offered in Monheim as the Monheimer model (MoMo), which also aims to make music for all primary school students there. I myself have been teaching the class string model since the 2005/06 school year. The present work is therefore an examination from the inside. As a teacher who not only deals with the teaching activity but also with the theoretical background of the model project, I was interested in how the students perceive the project. I assume that children as their own personality with their own ideas and wishes can and want to be taken seriously in their living environment. Baacke differentiates between different living environments (cf. Baacke 1999, 1st chapter) of each child, which he in turn regards as a competent child: 5

6 Children today should not only be seen as in need of protection (protective thought) or in development (developmental thought), but as self-updating, increasingly independent personalities with a claim to fundamentally equal recognition and development (Baacke 1999, p. 394). The school and in it the class strings model are each special excerpts from this child's world that every child experiences and processes for himself. In addition to this development of musical-pedagogical models, a paradigm shift has also taken place in empirical social research. Today childhood is accepted and viewed as a separate phase of life. Analogous to the Shell Youth Study, Hurrelmann and Andresen interviewed 1,592 children between the ages of eight and eleven in the 1st World Vision Children's Study in Germany 2007. The aim is even to carry out surveys of four to five year old children (Hurrelmann & Andresen 2007, p. 13). This is based on the assumption that only children themselves, as experts, can and should provide information about their life situation, and adults are not the competent respondents about it (cf. Mayhall 1994, quoted from Kränzl-Nagl & Wilk 2000, p. 60). The aim of this thesis is to analyze the students' perception of the lesson with the help of a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative procedures, but with a qualitative focus. Through individual interviews with selected participating students, it is possible to obtain precise information about the perception of the project from the student's perspective, whereby the use of interview guidelines ensures comparability. In the run-up to the interviews, questionnaires make it possible to draw up an opinion of all the students involved and, in the sense of a theoretical sampling, to select students for the interviews. A qualitative focus is appropriate for this work, as it deals with the perception of the students surveyed and comparability and representativeness are not demands on qualitative research. A total of 185 questionnaires were collected and 9 interviews were carried out. The questionnaires were evaluated using the Grafstatt2000 program. The interviews were conducted in accordance with the grounded theory according to Glaser and Strauss 6

7 (1967/1998), a category system was created and evaluated based on categories. Since I unfortunately did not have an evaluation program such as Atlas ti and the amount of data was still manageable due to the limited time resources, I transcribed the interviews myself with the help of the transcription program f4, evaluated them based on categories with the word processing program Word and the category system with the help of the program at least map created. Note: In the following text, the masculine form was chosen for the designation of persons in order not to disturb the legibility of words with capitalized end syllables and, as a result, slashes in articles and pronouns. The male form is intended as a generic term for the more typologically respected functionaries (teachers, students, participants, etc.). 7th

8 2 Classification of the project in related areas The class strings model is related to different areas, which will now be dealt with separately. The class strings model is based on elementary music pedagogy (EMP), which is presented here on the basis of fundamental aspects. The term class making music comes into play as soon as a school class is making music in whatever form. If this term is specified according to instruments, the relation of the class string model to string classes is noticeable. These often take place in cooperation with a music school or music college, which is why there is also a reference here. The class strings model is taught in elementary school as a revaluation of the second regular music lesson in a general elementary school. Therefore, a look at the guidelines of the elementary school for music in North Rhine-Westphalia seems appropriate. In addition, the class strings model is based on the basic musical training curriculum of the Association of German Music Schools (VdM). 2.1 Elementary music education The focus of elementary music education is elementary music-making. Different goals, contents and methods play a role here. Elementary music-making initially takes place regardless of age. In addition to early musical education and basic musical training, age limits are expanding today. Parent-child music courses are aimed at children from zero to four years of age 1, and elementary musical processes can also be initiated with adolescents, adults and senior citizens. Juliane Ribke formulates seven characteristics of the elementary handling of music, in which most of them also play a role in the class string model: 1.Musical means of expression and representation are body, body instruments, voice, language, instruments (mainly percussion instruments) and materials of all kinds, which can be used to generate sound (cf. Ribke 2002, p. 16). In the class string model, in addition to body, body 1 The VdM working aid for musical education from the start offers developmental psychological and educational perspectives for the age group before early musical education (Dartsch 2007). 8th

9 elementary percussion and voice also worked with string instruments. After getting to know the instruments, each student has decided on violin, viola, cello or double bass. The instrument assignment remains in place for the entire duration of participation in the class strings model. 2. Elementary music-making is a process-oriented process. [] Phases of this process are self-directed experimentation, improvisation, creative shaping, structuring everything in a balance of perceiving, acting and reflecting (Ribke 2002, p. 16). In addition to teaching basic instrumental skills such as holding the instrument, holding the bow and producing sound, the string model consistently includes experimental and improvisational phases. Due to the connection to songs, for which the students develop accompanying patterns, a structure of these phases is often already given. 3. Elementary music-making takes place with the basic phenomena of the musical material (Ribke 2002, p. 16). The basic phenomena of sound, dynamics and time are mainly explored in instrumental play. In addition to the general basic phenomena, the students experience their voice and their instrument in particular. 4. Elementary musical processes represent (subjective) statements of meaning (Ribke 2002, p. 17). In the class string model, a song is usually the focus of the lesson. This can be followed by a musical implementation based on personal associations, images or terms appropriate to the song. 5. Elementary music-making usually takes place in a group (Ribke 2002, p. 17). By anchoring the class strings model in the regular morning lessons of the elementary school, the entire class takes part in lessons. However, it is desirable to have enough space available to share the group. Phases of an hour or entire hours are taught differently according to instrument group or age group. But in small and large groups there are social exchange processes and interactions that affect the musical work. 6. Elementary music-making is a productive process that creates works. [] Works or products of elementary music-making are not clearly predictable, can only be repeated to a limited extent (Ribke 2002, p. 17). By orienting towards 9

10 songs for which accompanying patterns are developed, this characteristic is rarely found in the class string model. 7. The communication method and / or the further handling of the pieces can trigger elementary music-making processes (Ribke 2002, p. 18). This characteristic applies to the design of the lesson content in the class string model: There is a repertoire of songs and concert pieces that change every year, which form the starting point of the lessons. Elementary music education also combines personality-building goals with the above-mentioned musical goals. In doing so, the child's claim to be taken seriously as a person in his or her individual endeavors is taken into account (Zarius 1985, p. 11). Ribke ties the concept of education to the expansion of personality through creative interaction between subject and object, [through] self-directed learning and productive / creative action (Ribke 2002, p. 19). Dartsch also demands that space must be given to the child's creativity, yes, the child must be asked to become independent and creative (Dartsch 2007, p. 13). The strengthening of social competence and self-confidence as personality-building aspects happens at the same time and on an equal footing with the promotion of musical abilities and skills (cf. Beidinger 2002, p. 286). The human being is seen as a being who learns particularly effectively through joyful play and experiment and to whom these recipes for success are open for the rest of his life (cf. Dartsch 2002, p. 321). The working principles on which this is based are play and experiment, creativity and process orientation, inter-media work and body reference, relationship design and openness (Dartsch 2002, p. 321). Basic music education in the sense of elementary music education should be characterized by openness. It offers, for example, a wide range of ways of dealing with music, of topics, tasks, instruments and musical styles and tries to avoid one-sided influences (Dartsch 2002, p. 321). In the meantime, elementary music education has developed further in terms of this openness and diversity. Because Zarius still demanded that we orient ourselves to the norms of our music, because: You will be 10 for the child

11 of little use in the long term if one ignores these norms (Zarius 1985, p. 115). Rizzi, on the other hand, formulates clearly: Thus, the essentials of music of all styles and times also belong in elementary music education as an anthropological image, which, however, requires different methods of communication for specific target groups (Rizzi 2002, p. 305). After all, elementary music-making is possible with every age group, adapted to their possibilities and wishes. Especially when working with children, Zarius realizes that this is a prerequisite for fruitful work [], however, a disposition appropriate to the child's experience and learning behavior (Zarius 1985, p. 97). According to Fröhlich, it is also a field of activity in elementary music education to enrich the mental structure, especially when working with adults and young people. When working with children, it is a requirement of the leader to incorporate his musical expertise into the magical and mythical structures that (can) arise in the classroom (Fröhlich 2004, p. 33). Fröhlich refers to what happens in the classroom. The music-pedagogical integral as a variety of requirements for a course instructor means for her: she must recognize the child's now, she must participate in a common design in the sense of culture and she must also be able to pursue the required or self-set teaching goals flexibly in terms of time and subject (Fröhlich 2004, p. 33). Meyer, however, expands the requirements for teaching by calling for the creation of musical and aesthetic spaces of experience (Meyer 2004, p. 44). Aesthetic experiences require an aesthetic attitude (Meyer 2004, p. 46). Every object can thus become an object of aesthetic perception through the corresponding perceptual attitude. These musical-aesthetic spaces of experience can be created in the classroom, but they cannot be guaranteed, i.e. beyond a calculable planning (Meyer 2004, p. 47). Nevertheless, they should be given space; if they want to do justice to a comprehensive educational mandate, educational institutions have the duty to open up situations and spaces in which aesthetic experiences can take place in the sense of self-education (Meyer 2004, p. 47). 11

12 All of these aspects should benefit as many people as possible. In the class strings model, for example, all students in the school from the participating grades take part in the project. Because especially with children, elementary music education [] should be understood against the background of the social environment as an opportunity to compensate for the disadvantages of children and to strengthen social and emotional behavior through offers in the field of perception promotion and movement training (Hartmann-Hilter 2002, p. 71) .2.2 Making music in classes The term making music in classes refers to activities and forms of action in music lessons. Bähr (2005 a, p. 160) defines: - In the broader sense, class music-making in general schools is a joint activity of all members of a learning group. - Class music-making is a didactically and methodically planned, joint exercise with singing, playing instruments, movement and scene individually or in combination. - As a musical learning process and as an aesthetic-musical practical application, making music in a class contains parts of musical craft and artistic practice as well as reflection on the material and meaning dimension of music and musical actions. In doing so, one must first look at the intensity of the use of class music, which changes with regard to the functions. Bähr records the following functions (Bähr 2005 a, graphic p. 165): making music in classes just for fun, making music in classes to acquire music-making skills, making music in classes to acquire musical knowledge, making music in classes as a demonstration, making music in a creative way, making music in classes with movement and dance, making music in classes with scenic play , Making music in classes with a focus on making music, making music in classes in an integrated model. The various functions differ primarily with regard to the frequency of use in the classroom and the choice of instruments or the use of the voice. So: Are smaller lessons, individual phases or the entire lesson designed with music? Which instruments are used? 12th

13 In the class string model, the second regular music lesson in elementary school is taught instrumentally. So this is an extended music lesson in the sense of a revaluation of the second music lesson. At the same time, it is a form of music class, since all students in the class play an instrument in the class-string model. By using the violin, viola, cello and double bass, the choice of instruments is based on a string class. However, the content-related objectives differ significantly. Making music in a class summarizes all processes in which a school class makes music together. If it is not a music class in which all students always play a certain instrument, individual phases or topics are designed in a musical and practical way. The class strings model goes far beyond that. 2.3 String class lessons The term string class lessons means that a school class receives group lessons on string instruments, i.e. violin, viola, cello and double bass, which usually take place in a general school. There are different methods for this type of teaching. Your goal is always to learn the instrument. In the Rolland method, for example, a level of instrumental skills that can be described as intermediate is to be achieved after two years (Seiffert 1997, p. 15). These different models differ in their methodological progression, in the organizational requirements and also in the age of the target group (an overview of this is given by Seiffert 1997). Four begins by Braun / Kummer / Seiling (2008) is a concept that is specifically designed for elementary schools, based on Paul Rolland's method, but also incorporates elements of elementary music education in addition to instrumental pedagogy. Movement units are used in this context as preparation for metric and rhythmic security. On the basis of elementary vocal training units, the use of solmization serves as intensive aural training but also as a playful and sound-oriented preparation for learning the relative (= interval-13

14) and the absolute notation. (Braun / Kummer / Seiling 2008, p. 13) This textbook for string lessons is about an expansion of the content: Learning to play the instrument is the focus, but voice, movement and music-theoretical elements such as intervals and notation are also included. The class string model also differs from the string classes in terms of the teaching time available: In the class string model, lessons take place in the second regular music lesson, i.e. once a week. The exact time (30 or 45 minutes) depends on the organizational conditions of the school. The string class completely replaces the regular music lessons and takes place twice a week. Depending on the financial and organizational conditions, there are even extensions of up to three teaching units per week of 45 minutes each. Nevertheless, instrumental didactic aspects are also applied in the class string model without following a specific method. Even if the students make elementary music with the string instruments, this should be done with correct instrumental and bow posture. 2.4 Cooperation with music school and music academy The class string model, like other instrumental classes, lives from the cooperation between general school and musicians in the broadest sense. Depending on the nature of the project, these can be trained instrumental teachers, elementary music teachers and people certified through advanced training. In the class string model, contacts to the additional teachers were initially established through a cooperation with the Cologne University of Music and the Helmut Behn Foundation. In numerous other projects there is a cooperation between the general education school and the music school, as it also exists at JeKI or MoMo. In the Statistical Yearbook of Music Schools in Germany 2006, cooperations with general education schools are shown, but unfortunately not differentiated according to their content (see Association of German Music Schools 2007, p. 14

15 25). According to this, 642 of the total of 924 music schools in the state have cooperated with a primary school. For the state of Lower Saxony there is a study of cooperation between music schools and general education schools, in which 51.3% of the music schools participated (cf. Hafen & Münter 2006, p. 5). 70% of the cooperation took place in the primary school (cf. Hafen & Münter 2006, p. 13). 12% of the collaborations were string classes, although it is not clear from which concept they were taught and at which school level they took place. Instrumental training on string instruments clearly takes place in elementary school (cf. Hafen & Münter 2006, p. 38), with 17 of 21 of the string instrument cooperations taking place as a working group and not as a class (cf. Hafen & Münter 2006, p. 39). In the Limburg Declaration of May 30, 2008, the Association of German Music Schools spoke out in favor of putting the cooperation between music schools and general education schools on a well thought-out, secure and systematic basis in order to take advantage of all opportunities for increased musical education of the highest possible quality (Association of German Music Schools 2008, p. 1). 2.5 VdM basic musical training curriculum The class strings model is based on the content and objectives of the basic musical training of the Association of German Music Schools. The introduction to the curriculum states: The student is enabled to deal with music in a variety of ways and to behave in a musical manner in a group. He should enjoy music and acquire knowledge about music. (Curriculum for basic musical training 1992, p. 10). So the focus is on making music and not learning to play an instrument. The curriculum is divided into six areas: Singing and speaking, elementary instrumental playing, music and movement / dance, listening to music, instrument information, music teaching. In the following I will present the implementation of the contents of the curriculum in the class string model. 15th

16 Singing and speaking Singing is the starting point for all musical activity in the class string model lessons, because the voice is an instrument that every student always carries with them and that they can master more or less intensively. Singing and speaking are original and immediate forms of musical activity (curriculum for basic musical training 1992, p. 10). All songs for which instrumental accompaniment patterns are developed in the class string model lessons are first sung. The accompanying patterns are also worked out singing and using body percussion before they are transferred to the instruments. When selecting songs, care is taken to ensure that the pitch range corresponds to the child's vocal range (for elementary school children from c to f. Cf. Mohr 1997, p. 28). Seldom compromises have to be made with regard to the sound supply of the instruments with which the songs are to be accompanied. Different keys, time signatures and styles are also represented. Many pieces are also canons, so that polyphony can be achieved quickly. Elementary instrumental play and instrument information Because the students decide on an instrument at the beginning of the project, i.e. violin, viola, cello or double bass, they do not get to know the other string instruments directly in class. Other instruments such as wind instruments, keyboard instruments or percussion do not play a role in the classroom. However, because they regularly play this instrument for the duration of the project, i.e. for a maximum of two years, they get to know it all the better and can make a differentiated and well-founded decision as to why they like the instrument. By organizing the final concert with other (professional) musicians, who are accompanied by the students, there is also the opportunity to get to know other instruments. The students play simple accompanying patterns on their instruments. This will familiarize them with the handling of the instrument, with its posture, sound and the way in which the sound is produced. Through experimentation phases, you will get to know different sound possibilities of the instruments: plucking, knocking on the body, different types of lines and timbres. 16

17 Music and Movement / Dance The aim of the class is to make music and most students want to play their instruments too. In the often too small classroom there are many instruments, tables and chairs during the lesson. Because of these methodological and spatial aspects, the areas of expression and dance addressed in the curriculum are usually neglected. Music and movement / dance should maintain and promote the children's desire to move and enable diverse movement experiences with themselves, with others and with objects. The ability to express and represent the body should be made aware and a repertoire of forms of play and dance should be acquired (curriculum for basic musical training 1992, p. 11). With rhythmic walking, movements in the pulse to songs that are being played, or relaxation exercises and body percussion, the pupils' body awareness is definitely addressed in the class string model. Using the instrument also promotes fine motor skills. Listening to music Listening to music is differentiated in the curriculum: on the one hand, listening experiences should be made with selected pieces of music from different epochs and styles, which are presented either directly or via sound carriers; ). Active music-making means that listening repertoire is not built up using sound carriers in the class string model lessons. Different epochs and styles are represented by songs and concert pieces. Musical parameters play an important role as variable elements of every piece through active music-making. All students have access to a CD with the songs from the lesson, on which, in addition to the melodies, the accompanying patterns developed in the lesson can be heard. The students have the opportunity to get to know the songs by hearing or to play along with the CD at home. In this way, the songs and, in connection with them, the patterns, but also rhythms and intonation can be internalized through listening. 17th

18 Music Theory Through the active use of instruments, the students are very familiar with the use of different sounds. They also know musical forms from their own singing and performing practice. Through the use of Zoltan Kodaly's rhythm language, the students are also confident in handling grades. What doesn't matter in the class string project is notation. The accompanying patterns are instructed by making music actively. As a reminder and assistance, the teacher gives hand signals for pitches. The displayed body planes are related to the strings of the instruments. Traditional music notation is usually a theme in regular music lessons and can then also be used for teaching the class strings model, for example to write down homework. 2.6 Primary school curriculum for music In the class strings model, the regular second music lesson is converted into lessons with string instruments. Due to this connection to the mainstream school, in addition to the basic musical education curriculum, the primary school curriculum is also taken into account when setting the content. Due to the emergence of the class strings model in Cologne, I am referring here to the guidelines and curricula for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The current primary school curriculum for music came into force on August 1, 2008 and was in part only issued to schools in September. Since August 1, 2003, guidelines and curricula have been in effect for testing. During this time, the class strings model and the Monheim model emerged. The last mandatory curriculum comes from In elementary school, music lessons have a variety of goals. It should arouse and intensify joy and interest in music, develop musical perception, experience and expression and develop musical skills (KM NRW 2008, p. 87). It should contribute to personality development and support empathy, creativity, concentration as well as the ability to motivate, communicate and work in a team and contribute to the creation of an atmosphere conducive to learning (KM NRW 2008, p. 87). This equation of transfer effects and actual under- 18

In terms of its tasks and goals, music lessons go well beyond purely musical aspects. 2. Music lessons should start with the musical reality and the listening habits of the students. By including music from the home of children with a migration background, it should contribute to intercultural learning. Attention is drawn to the importance of music lessons for school life. A music and listening culture should develop through daily singing and making music, through working groups and on special occasions. The class strings model also contributes to a school profile and enriches school life with a repertoire of songs and the concerts that take place. The music lessons in the primary school are based on competencies that are organized in learning fields with respective focal points. These areas of competence are making music, listening to music, performing music 3. Parallel to this is the area of ​​competence communicating through music, which is always connected to the other learning fields (cf. KM NRW 2008, p. 88). Every school itself has to concretise the competence expectations in the form of lesson topics and series. The areas of competence are in constant interaction with one another, but also with other subjects, school life and the musical environment (see graphic KM NRW 2008 p. 90). Making music The competence area making music is divided into two focal points, each with a different focus. Making music with your voice is divided into the areas of getting to know songs, creating songs with your voice and improvising with your voice (KM NRW 2008, p. 91 f.). A practicing-reproducing as well as a free handling of the voice in a vocal-physiologically adequate framework is required. 2 The discussion about the transfer effects of music lessons was stimulated primarily by Bastian (cf. Bastian 2000). But the class strings make music because of the music. It is not about improvements in other school subjects or about cognitive development of the students but about the enthusiasm for music, the opportunity to participate in and help shape cultural life and the chance for aesthetic experiences (Meyer o.j., p. 2). 3 These areas remain the same in the 1985, 2003 and 2008 curricula. However, their content is continuously being refined and renamed up to the current competence areas, which precisely stipulate in the competence expectations which competencies each student should demonstrate at the end of grade 4 (cf. KM NRW 2008, p. 91 ff.). 19th

20 The competence area making music with instruments is divided into the focal points improvising and experimenting with instruments and playing music on instruments (KM NRW 2008, p. 92). The aim is to work with self-made and Orff instruments, but also with cultural instruments [n] (KM NRW 2008, p. 88) 4. The class strings model can be anchored at this point. In the previous curriculum, the appropriate instruments were differentiated as follows: body instruments, materials and objects from the environment, simple sound generators made in-house, western traditional musical instruments, musical instruments from foreign cultures, electronic musical instruments and sound sources (KM NRW 2003, p. 99). The class string model sets clear priorities in the area of ​​songs. Song design, expansion of the song repertoire through themes and genres, diverse rhythms and melodies, different linguistic and cultural areas, polyphony are all taken into account.In the areas of inventing your own melodies, either an extension of the class string model would be conceivable, or the cooperation must be coordinated with the music teacher who organizes the other, regular music lesson with the students. Listening to music The listening to music competence area is divided into three main areas: encountering music in all its diversity, experiencing the effects of music and using notation elements (KM NRW 2008, p. 93). In the focus on encountering music in all its diversity and experiencing the effects of music, the class string model helps to get to know the group of string instruments and their sounds particularly well. Musical forms can also be heard through one's own music making. Because the focus is on practical, elementary music-making, music is rarely discussed in a reflective manner. Here again, as in the aspects of speaking about live experiences, thematizing favorite music, presenting classification criteria (such as occupation, culture or purpose), the second music lesson could be taken on. 4 With cultural instruments the classical orchestral instruments are probably meant. With the violin, viola, cello and bass, such instruments are used in the class string model. 20th

21 In the 2003 curriculum, more space was given above all to building up a rich repertoire of audio samples (KM NRW 2003, p. 101). An auditory examination of diverse music (pop music and jazz, classical and new music, as well as music from other countries and cultures) should still take place (KM NRW 2008, p. 88). Apparently, this no longer plays a role in the competence expectations. The focus on using notation elements puts notation in the context of listening to music. The students should use graphic and simple traditional notation to read and write as hearing aids. Examples are: Quarter, half and whole notes, ascending and descending tone sequences, volume and tempo designations (KM NRW 2008, p. 93). So notation should be used and learned, but only in connection with music that is being played (KM NRW 2008, p.87). Elsewhere, however, it says: A sheet music course has no place in elementary school music lessons. (KM NRW 2008, p. 89). Notation is not used in the class string model. In the notation of homework, the pitches are noted using the letters of the string names, the rhythms using the rhythm language learned in class. Realizing music The competence area realizing music is divided into three main areas: Moving to the music, creating musical scenes and translating music into images. By combining music with gestures, facial expressions, language, movement, dance, scenes, images, etc., child-appropriate approaches and differentiated ways of experiencing are made possible (KM NRW 2008, p. 89). The content that is specifically formulated in the focal points does not play a role in the class string model, as the lessons are based on active music making on the instrument. Developing and rehearsing dances, creating music through forms of movement, developing game scenes and the visualization of music can definitely find their place in the second regular music lesson. 21

22 Communicating about music The competence area communicating about music with its aids notation and technical terms is linked to the areas of making music, listening to music and performing music. The skills required for this are reflected in the skills already mentioned (cf. KM NRW 2008, p. 89). Notation nevertheless has a serving function (KM NRW 2008, p. 89) and should help to record musical ideas in the sense of a basis for understanding or to secure results and to facilitate one's own music-making (KM NRW 2008, p. 89). When listening to music, it is used as an aid to understanding. Initially, neither traditional nor graphic forms of notation are used in the class string model. As a reminder for the students at home, the letters of the string names are used at the beginning. Later, when traditional notation has been learned in music lessons, it can be used. In this way, teaching can be carried out without any form of notation. Musical terms are used as a matter of course by the students in the class string model when they have learned their meaning while actively making music and using the instrument. The term is secondary, the use of technical terms is not an end in itself, the primary school curriculum also states (KM NRW 2008, p. 89). In the class strings model, the pupils experience numerous technical terms through active use of the instrument, which facilitate understanding in class and which are naturally related to the current activity. 2.7 Conclusion In the current curriculum for elementary school music, clear competencies are formulated which the students should have achieved at the end of elementary school. Especially in the area of ​​visualization or notation and in the area of ​​movement, the class string model does not integrate all of these requirements. However, they can easily be shifted to the second regular music lesson. However, other forms of class music, such as string or wind classes, which take up the entire lesson time allocated for music in the lesson table, have to start their lessons on April 22nd

23 align current curriculum. There are not only temporal, but also spatial challenges associated with this. 23

24 3 Current (political) developments in North Rhine-Westphalia In his Berlin speech in September 2006, Federal President Horst Köhler called for education for everyone. He also mentions music that, in addition to sport and art, brings reason and feeling together, and that is important for the personality and good for intuition and creativity (Köhler 2006, p. 8). Meanwhile, Köhler is the patron of the project Every Child an Instrument, through which every elementary school pupil is given the invaluable experience of making music themselves and with others (Köhler 2008, p. 5). 3.1 An instrument for every child (JeKI) An instrument for every child is a music pedagogical initiative in the Ruhr area that started in 2003 and has continued to develop in the course of Essen's election as the cultural capital. By 2010, all first graders in the entire region should have the opportunity to get to know musical instruments in order to then receive instrumental lessons on the instrument they have chosen from the second year (see each child an instrument, program description). If the project is successful, the project could be extended to the entire state from 2010 (see Future Foundation Education, Project Information and Frequently Asked Questions, Section J). The offer supplements music lessons in primary school; participation is free and compulsory in the first year of school, voluntary from the second year of school on (cf. one instrument for every child is free for first graders, press release). The project is now supported by the Every Child An Instrument Foundation. In addition, the project is supported by the German Federal Cultural Foundation, the Future Foundation Education in the GLS Treuhand e.v., the municipalities and donations (see each child an instrument, program description). In the first year of school, up to 15 instruments are presented to the students. Classes take place in the primary school in tandem with music teachers and music school teachers. From the second school year onwards, the pupils receive lessons in small groups on the instrument of their choice from music school teachers. In the third and fourth school years, ensemble playing is added to instrumental lessons. At the end of each school year, the results are presented in 24

25 presented at a concert. The aim of the first year in the project Every Child An Instrument should be to enable the children to decide on an instrument and to learn general musical basics. The students get to know the instruments through DIY instruments and the presentation of real instruments. In the remaining time (each child an instrument, teaching material, p. 6) experiences with the parameters rhythm and pitch are imparted. In addition, aspects from the area of ​​movement / dance and elementary instrumental play with Orff instruments also play a role. In the first year of the model Every child has an instrument, the following learning areas are important, which I will deal with individually in the following: Instrument studies, listening to music, discovering the instrument voice, music and movement, general music theory (see Every child an instrument, teaching material, p. 3). Instrumentology Based on experience with Orff instruments in terms of sound generation and sound properties, musical instruments are presented that can be learned in the second year. At least the following instruments are provided: violin, viola, violoncello, double bass, trumpet, trombone, horn, flute, clarinet, guitar, mandolin, accordion, recorder, percussion instruments and at least two instruments from other countries such as baglama and bouzouki ( See an instrument for every child free of charge for first graders, press release). There should be enough child-sized copies available for each instrument so that every child can get a realistic impression. Using self-made instruments, the students gain an insight into the type of sound production. Therefore, numerous instruments are made in-house in the classroom: monochord, hose trumpet, drum, pan flute, duck loosener, stalk oboe, nut castanets, kazoo and nasophone. 25th

26 Listening to music On the one hand, the pupils should get to know the presented instruments in typical literature through audio examples, for example solo works of the respective instrument. In addition, different styles of music should also be represented so that the students develop likes or dislikes (each child an instrument, teaching material, p. 9). Discovering the voice as an instrument The students should get to know their voice as an emotional means of expression. In songs they process and reflect [they] experience everyday life (an instrument for every child, teaching material, p. 10). Each teacher has the freedom but also the task of creating a repertoire of songs himself. Only the topics are given, such as the greeting song, farewell song and animal song. In addition to promoting self-perception through the voice, the inner tone is promoted, which is a basic prerequisite for learning an instrument and expressing yourself adequately using the instrument (every child an instrument, teaching material, p. 10). Music and movement Through movement, the students get to know their body and their senses. Movement to the music makes it possible to perceive musical aspects such as basic beat and form. All goals of movement education as well as the effects on the development of perception form the basis for the ability to learn an instrument (every child an instrument, teaching material, p. 11). General music theory Work is carried out with the rhythm language according to Kodaly, which emerges from the planning overview for one hour (each child an instrument, teaching material, p. 12/46). When it comes to teaching notes, the aim of the first year is not to teach students how to read notes (each child has an instrument, teaching material, p. 12). That can only be done with the implementation on 26