Some Hindu god has blue eyes

Indian gods

Indian gods - learn more about the diversity of Indian gods and goddesses and their meaning. There are the main Indian gods and goddesses. There are the Vedic gods and numerous local gods. Find lots of pictures of Indian gods, videos and audios here.

Brahma in a lotus flower

The diversity of the Indian gods

People differ in their tastes, mental abilities, and intellectual level. Different rishis (seers) created the different gods and goddesses to meet the different needs of the masses. All gods belong to the infinite - only the forms that are assigned to this indescribable reality vary. For example, if a textile shop offers a variety of fabrics and fashions, with colorful clothing, many people will go shopping there. If only one type of clothing is offered, only a few will come. However, all the different items of clothing are made from the same cotton fabric. It is the same with the gods: some like Shiva, others Devi, some Krishna, others Christ. The underlying principle and the properties behind it are the same. God is omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent.

Vishnu with Lakshmi and Brahma in the lotus flower

The main Indian gods

The main Indian gods are Brahma and his wife Saraswati, Vishnu and Lakshmi, Shiva and Parvati / Durga / Kali with their sons Ganesha and Subrahmanya. There are also so-called Vedic gods, who were worshiped in the Vedic period before classical Hinduism. These include the god prince Indra, the fire god Agni, the moon god Soma, the wind god Vayu, the death god Yama, the Ashvins, both worshiped as divine healers, the truth god Varuna, the sun god Surya, Dyaus ("Father Heaven"), Prithivi ("mother." Earth "), the mother of gods Aditi, the dawn of Ushas and others

Shiva, Parvati and Ganesha

Why do Hindus worship figures of their gods?

The image is nothing more than a three-dimensional representation of infinite consciousness. How can consciousness, which can only incompletely imagine a fourth dimension, grasp the infinite? The image is a symbol that limited consciousness can understand and relate to. Almost everyone responds to symbols. When we shake hands, hoist a flag or have a picture of a loved one on a shelf, a symbolic process occurs. The flag means more than a simple piece of fabric with patterns on it. It represents a whole country and its people. We should also never spit on the picture of a loved one, even though it is "only" a piece of paper.

Baby Krishna with flute and bowl of butter

Different religions contain different symbols. Christians revere symbols such as the cross, pray to Jesus, Mother Mary and other saints through images such as statues and paintings. The Muslims pay homage and respect to the Prophet Mohamed and noble people. The Jewish religion preserves the Torah. The Sabbath service includes a respectful, ritual procession with the holy book. The Persians and Iranians perform extensive fire worship. So all religions use symbols or images. The portrait indicates the ideal one strives to strive for. As long as one has not reached the state of infinity, images and symbols serve a definite purpose in that they provide a focus for devotion and contemplation.

Durga on the tiger with their weapons

Why do the Indian gods have wives?

God's creation is nothing more than a material manifestation of part of this unfathomable energy called God. This divine energy exists in a static and a dynamic state. Both states cannot be separated from one another. Hindu mythology depicts the dynamic aspect as the female consort of the static energy state. "Shakti" stands for the source of dynamic power. E.g. the combination of Shiva - Shakti, spirit - matter underlies all creation. Creation exists only because the Creator knows how and what is created.

The marriage of Brahma with Saraswati, the goddess of complete knowledge, symbolizes this idea. Lakshmi, Vishnu's consort, is the bearer of the wealth that Vishnu needs in order to manifest his power of receiving. He maintains the entire universe. Hence he wed the goddess of wealth. Parvati represents matter. Matter is destructible. The power of destruction can only manifest itself where there is destructible matter. Shiva, the Lord of Destruction, must consort Parvati in order to manifest his power of destruction. Ganesha has two wives: Buddhi (knowledge) and Siddhi (wealth). Subrahmanya also has two wives: Vallia and Devasana, who represent pure love and devotion and total self-surrender.

Why do the Indian gods hold weapons in their hands?

There are weapons to destroy vasanas (behavior and desire) in one. The divine self can only be reached if they are destroyed. The vasanas obscure our inherent divinity. Ganesha holds an ax in one hand and a rope in another. The ax symbolizes the destruction of all desires and ties. With the rope the seeker is drawn out of his worldly problems and tied to the eternal bliss inherent in himself. Shiva uses the trident (trisula) as his divine weapon. The trident with its three points symbolizes the destruction of the ego with its threefold wishful nature of the body, feeling and thinking. This means victory over the ego, which leads to the attainment of perfection.

Why do the Indian gods have a vehicle?

The divine vehicle has an inner meaning. The vehicle represents the dream nature. A small desire entering human consciousness can destroy all of its material and spiritual wealth that has been gained over many years. A perfect person is fully in control of the nature of his desires. In this case, the gods show their complete control over desires and desires.

Vishnu with the world serpent

Indian gods

The Indian gods form an inseparable part of Indian life. The Indian gods are considered to be mysterious superhuman beings who are worshiped in various ways in this land. The Indian gods form a superhuman and mysterious race of powerful human-like beings who originated from the ancient Aryans and Vedic tribes of the Middle East from around 3,000 BC. were worshiped until modern times. They were mainly recognized in Hinduism. It is believed that God pervades everything everywhere. He is the oversized being and dwells in the gigantic things as well as in the smallest particle in the world. Hinduism describes God as a being who is visible and invisible at the same time. He has a shape and he is shapeless as well.

The Hindu gods are eternal deities who appear unlimited and diverse, but actually they are aspects of the same Brahman, the supreme god. Indian gods are Hindu deities in a number of incarnations. The Hindu religion has a number of gods and goddesses who are worshiped by the people of India. According to Hindu belief, the gods and goddesses are living beings of a separate macrocosm. In addition to the many gods, the Indians also worship a large number of goddesses. The goddesses are worshiped in almost all parts of India. They are worshiped in various ways in the land. Some of the great Indian goddesses include Parvati, Kali and Durga, among others.

The most popular of the Indian gods and goddesses

Brahma is the god of creation, an important parivara or a family deity among the Hindus. He is represented with four heads, which embody the four Vedas, which are also called the four "Yugas". Brahma sits on a lotus and his mount is the swan.

Vishnu is the god of preservation, protection and nourishment among the Indian gods. He played a crucial role in introducing souls to the cycle of life sustained by Brahma. His skin color is the color of dark clouds, which is why he is often known as "Nilameghashyamalan". He is merciful. Vishnu is seen resting on the ocean on his bed of Adishesha, the world serpent. He reveals himself to save people from evil. He has ten avatars or incarnations, and these are Matsya (fish), Kurma (turtle), Varaha (boar), Narashima (lion man), Vamana (dwarf), Parashurama (Rama with the ax), Rama, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki .

Rama is often depicted with a bow and arrow, his weapons with which he protects the good and fights the demons.

Shiva is the god of destruction and is highly honored among the Indian gods. It is very venerated in the form of a linga or phallic symbol built on a pedestal. The tremendous energy of the Creator is symbolized by the "Linga", which receives the Creators Brahma, Vishnu and GayatriDevi in ​​his heart.

Ganesha is one of the main gods of India, who is worshiped at the beginning of every significant act or undertaking. As "Vigneshwara" he is known for clearing all obstacles out of the way. He is seen in the shape of an elephant's head on a human body with four arms, a large belly and a snake that adorns him.

Jagannath the name was given to describe a divine figure of Krishna. He is considered to be merciful and the oldest and most well known Jagannath deity in Puri (Orissa). The famous "Ratha Yatra" or Chariot Festival is held every year to celebrate Krishna's return to Mathura.

Hanuman is also known as "Anjaneya" and is found among the most important Indian gods and goddesses in the Indian epic Ramayana. He helped Rama win Sita back from Ravana and was blessed with tremendous energy and strength from the gods. He is highly venerated in the temples. He completely assumes the position of a deity among the other Indian gods.

Hanuman carries Rama and Sita on his shoulders

Another very important Indian god is Indrawho is known as the king of gods and ruler of the heavens. He is a great warrior, and he is also considered a rain and thunder god. Numerous stories are associated with him, including how he lost the heavens to the demons. It is decorated with a conch, hook, rainbow, loop and vajra.

Indian goddesses

Parvati is the most revered Indian goddess. She is the revelation of Shakti and the feminine creative energy of the universe. Shakti is also related to Prakriti, the "material nature" of Ishwara, which unites with Brahma to create everything around it. It is believed that Shiva, the Purusha (primordial soul) or the male creative principle of the universe is related to Prakriti (nature / cosmic substance), expressed through Parvati, which sustains the flow of life.

Durga is one of the shadows of Parvati and an expression of Shakti or Prakriti. The goddess Durga is the benevolent mother of the universe, and she is also the destroyer of evil. This goddess holds the trishul (trident), sometimes the sword in her various images. One hand of this goddess is shown in the Varada Mudra or in an attitude of giving blessings to her faithful followers. In the state of West Bengal she is depicted as a god with ten arms.

Saraswati gives wisdom and knowledge. The stringed instrument called "Veena" and the book she holds in her hands affirm her as the heavenly master of all kinds of learning - be it creative arts (music) or exploration, gifts and skills.

Indian gods from the Vedas

Here are some Indian gods as described in the Vedas:

Agni, the fire god, is a Hindu and Vedic deva (demigod). This god is both blessing and destructive. Agni is the recipient of sacrifices and messenger from the gods. With this, all taxes that are made to him are distributed among the other gods and goddesses. He enjoys immortality and everlasting youth because fire is used every day. Agni or fire is fundamental to existence as part of the Panchamahabhutas or the five elements namely earth or Prithvi, Agni or Tejas (fire), Jala (water) or Ap, ether or Akasha and Vayu (air).

Pavan or Vayu, the god of wind or air, is a deity worshiped mainly in Hinduism. Similar to Agni, the god forms part of the five tatvas or elements known as the Panchamahabhutas. The word "Vayu" from the Sanskrit language is related to the Latin word "Vita", which means life. Indeed, Vayu means Prana, or essential life force.

Varuna is the source of the water that sustains life, the water in rivers, lakes, and oceans, and even the rain that falls and sometimes causes flooding. Varuna rides on Makara, its mountain or some kind of sacred sea creature. However, the ancient scriptures convey different information. In the Vedic religion, Varuna is viewed as the god of rain, sky and ocean. He is also the creator of law and the underworld. His abode is the heavenly sea, Rasa.

The origin of the god Kartikeya, the symbol of male strength, is connected with the despair of the gods because of the birth of the long-awaited son of Shiva, who could destroy the terrible demon Taraka.

The role of the Indian gods in the Vedanta system

Article from the book "Das System des Vedanta" by Paul Deussen, Elibron Classics, 2nd edition, 1906, pp. 68-76.

One would be wrong to consider the existence of the gods (Deva, Devata) to be incompatible with the strictly monistic teaching of our system of Brahman as the Lord (Ishvara), the omnipresent (Sarvagata), the one without second (Ekam Eva Advitiyam) . Rather, they are just as real as the rest of the world: the pseudo-existence that this latter has, also belongs to them, and the gods of Indian popular belief (whose adherence, incidentally, was already required by the recognition of Karma Kanda and Karma Mimansa, see above P. 21 et seq.) Are as little denied by the Vedanta as those of the Greek by Plato or Epicurus, if they do not play a special role, as in these, and the ideas about them which occasionally come to light do not really agree.

In general, the Indian gods, at the head of which Indra is usually mentioned, are still what they are in the Rigveda for our authors: personifications of natural forces and natural phenomena, and an attempt to evaporate them into the relevant natural elements is shown in Rejected in the following way (p. 309,11): “The names of gods like Aditya etc., even if they also refer to light etc., necessitate the assumption of spiritual ones endowed with Aishvaryam (rulership) more correspondingly according to the scriptures Divine beings; for this is how they are used in the mantras and brahmanas; and the gods, by virtue of their aishvaryam, have the ability to remain as self (atman) of light, etc., or to accept this or that individuality (vigraha) at will; for so the Scriptures say when explaining the Subrahmanya formula [Shadvinsha-br. 1,1]: "0 ram of Medhatithi - namely as a ram once he stole [Indra, as Shankara adds] Medhatithi, the" Kanva offspring "; and the Smriti tells [Mahab. 1,4397], like Aditya as a man Kunti visited; according to the doctrine of the Scriptures, the earth etc. also have spiritual rulers, for it says [Shatap. Br. 6,1,3,2.4] "the earth spoke", "the water spoke"; and even if the elements of nature, like If the light in the sun etc. are without spirit, they still have divine beings as spiritual rulers, as they appear in mantras and brahmanas.

The Indian gods function as such "rulers" and "rulers" in particular with the organs of life (p. 186,6: Devata Atma Indriyasya Adhishthata, p. 728,9: Karananam Niyantrishu Davatasu), in which they, according to Ait. 1,2,4, Agni as speech, Vayu as breath, Aditya as eye etc., have entered (p. 423,14); for even if the organs are capable of doing their work in themselves (Shakta), they are only like the cart that still has to be pulled by an ox (p. 727,1); but the gods do not take part in the enjoyment (and suffering), which in the body belongs to the individual soul alone (p. 727,13; - the gods are only BhogaUpakaranaBhuta, the soul alone is Bhoktar, connoisseur, p. 379,4) while only she, tainted by good and bad, enjoys pleasure and pain (p. 728,3), while the gods are freed from all evil (p.728.6); how they do not emigrate with the organs of life and the soul, even at death, but withdraw their assistance (p. 745, 8) in order, on the one hand, to interact with the (temporarily) blessed on the moon (p. 750, 5), on the other hand to show the soul entering into Brahman the way through the various heavenly regions (p. 1117, 11).

Besides, the Indian gods dwell in the highest realm of glory (Parasmin Aishvarye Pade, p. 728,4), but their whole Aishvaryam is dependent on Parameshvara (p. 217,7), the "supreme lord", ie the Brahman: this one is the atman (the self) as in everything else, so also in the gods (âtmâ devânâm Chând. 4,3,7); it is the antaryâmin (inner guide), who according to Brih. 3,7 all beings, all Or ¬gane and thus also all gods inwardly governs without them becoming aware of it themselves, therefore he, in this sense, is different from their empirical self (Devatatman) (p. 196,3): The Ishvara (Lord), like Brahman is also preferred to be mentioned in these exoteric discussions, it is furthermore who creates the gods, men and animals, in that he is guided precisely according to the merit and guilt of the soul in an earlier existence (p. 492,12) and accordingly animals to infinite suffering, men to an intermediate state, the gods to infinite chem enjoyment has determined (p. 491.6). But this "infinite enjoyment" stops, like everything except Brahman, once the immortality of the gods is (as with Empedocles) a relative one (Apekshikam p. 326,4. 241,14) and only means longevity (p. 193,12 ), they too are entangled in samsara (migration circulation), are mere products (Vikara pp. 195,13. 280,8) and as such are exposed to impermanence and need, because like scripture (Brih. 3,4,2 ) says: "What is different from him is sorrowful" (p. 241.15). The calling of the gods to redeeming knowledge, which we now want to consider more closely, is based on this.

First of all, it should be stated that the Indian gods are nowhere excluded from Brahmavidya in Scripture (p. 281,1). It is true that they do not take part in the Upanayanam (introduction from a teacher), but neither do they need it; for the purpose of this ceremony is only the admission to the study of the Veda, which is manifest to the gods by itself (Svayam Pratibhata) (see 281,3). [Quaintly, there are also examples of gods and Rishis becoming Brahmans' disciples, such as Indra in Prajapati (Chand. 8,7-12) and Bhrigu in Varuna (Taitt. 3,1). The gods also live in their hearts for the purpose of knowledge (according to Cath. 4:12) the Purusha (Brahman) "the breadth of a thumb", whereby of course the breadth of a divine thumb is to be understood for the gods (p. 282,1 ).

Furthermore, the Indian gods are capable of redemption because, according to the testimony of mantras, brahmanas, Itihasas, Puranas and popular opinion, they have individuality (Vigrahavattvam) (p. 280,9), and they are in need of it because of their power (Vibhuti ) belongs to the realm of the changeable and is therefore perishable (p. 280,7). Very serious doubts now arise against these two provisions.

First objection: The alleged individuality of the Indian gods, says the opponent, is neither real nor possible. It is not real because one does not perceive the gods who are present when one makes sacrifices to them (p. 282,7), and it is not possible because individuals cannot be in several places at the same time , but the gods can do this by z. For example, sacrifices are often made to the Indra in different places at the same time (p. 282,8).

The answer is: The Indian gods are not seen at the sacrifice because they have the power to make themselves invisible (p. 284,5), but at the same time they can be in different places because they are able to express their essence ( Atman) to be divided into different forms (p. 284,4); for if the yogin according to Smriti (Mahabharatam 12: 11062) can multiply his body a thousandfold in order to enjoy the senses in one form, and to be incumbent on the other with terrible mortification (p. 283,9), how much more can the gods do this whose, according to a Veda passage (Brih. 3,9,1), first 303 and 3003, i.e. 3306, but then only 33 are counted, with the explanation that the larger number only designates their powers (Mahimanas), like those 33 can be traced back to one, provided that their all beings are Prana, life (ie here: Brahman) (p. 283).

Second objection: if the Indian gods, like us, are individuals, they too, like us, must be born and die; now the Veda is eternal (in the spirit of the Creator, who "breathed it out", as the Vedanta p. 48,6 according to Brih. 2,4,10 assumes), and the Veda speaks of the gods. How is this possible, if the gods are not also eternal (p. 285,8)?

This objection compels the author of the commentary and perhaps even that of the sutras (cf. 1, 3, 30) to adopt a very strange theory, which comes very close to Plato's theory of ideas and, since we have no reason, a dependence on the one or on the other hand, bears witness to the fact that there is something in the nature of things which drives Plato's teaching, and to which the teaching of the Indian can help to lead.

It is true, he says, that the Indian individual gods are transitory, and the Veda words which speak of them are eternal; but the words of the Veda, e.g. For example, the word "cow" found in the Veda does not refer to individuals (any single cow) but to "the objects of the words: cow, etc." (Shabda Artha p. 286,6), d. H. on the species; and in the same way the word "Indra" does not mean an individual, but a certain position (Sthana Vishesha), something like the word "general"; whoever currently holds the position bears the name (p. 287,5).

So we have to distinguish between individuals (Vyakti, p. 286.7 and also p. 464.5, literally: "appearance", "manifestation"), which are transitory, and species (Akriti, ie "form", " Shape "), which are eternal; Pp. 286,7, for even if the individuals, like “cow etc., arise, this does not mean that their“ species ”; for with substances, qualities and activities the individual appearances (Vyakti) arise, not the “forms of the genus (Akriti), and only with the species, not with the individuals, are the [Veda] words connected, there with the latter, because of the Eternity [of the Veda], a connection cannot be accepted. Therefore, even if the individuals arise, the species are eternal in words like cow, etc., and therefore not a contradiction; and in the same way there is no contradiction with [gods] names like Vasu etc., because the species of the gods are eternal, if one also assumes an origin for their individuals.

These eternal species of things, as they are laid down in the Veda, as the immortal repertory of all wisdom and knowledge, are not, however, for our author mere forms (Akriti), but the concept of them plays just as with Plato (Soph. P. 247D fg.) Into that of the active forces (Shakti), from which the world always emerges anew after its end; P. 303,1: "This world is perishing, but in such a way that the forces remain from it, and these forces are the root from which it emerges again; otherwise we would have an effect without a cause. Now one can do not assume that the forces [from which the world emerges] are of different kinds [from those from which it emerged earlier], therefore it must be admitted that in spite of the repeated interruption [of the circulation of the world] for the [newly] arising series of world spaces, such as earth, etc., for the ranks of groups of living beings, gods, animals, and humans, and for the various states of castes, ashramas, duties, and rewards in which beginningless samsara there is a necessary determinateness (Niiyutatvam, similar to that) the necessary determinateness in the connection of the [five] sense organs with the [five] elements: for even with these elements there is no possibility of a difference for every creation, such as a sixth s sense organ "and element" would be disregarded.

Since the activity in all world periods (Kalpa) is similar and it allows one to orient oneself [in the case of a new creation] to the activity in the earlier world period, the creators [Ishvarah] have the differences of the same names and floating in each time creation Shaping before, and according to the equality of names and shapes, it happens that if one also records a return of the world by means of a total coming into being and total passing away, the authority etc. of the Veda word does not suffer.

The Veda word, with its whole complex of ideas about the world and its conditions, forms an eternal guideline for the Creator that survives all destruction. The same person "remembers", in creating the worlds, the words of the Veda (p. 297,10), and thus the world with its constant forms (Niyata Akriti) emerges from the Veda word like gods, etc. (p. 298 , 2) Of course, this emergence of the gods etc. from the Veda is not to be taken in the sense of a caussa materialis (Upadana Karanam), like the emergence from Brahman, but it only means “an emergence of the individuals of things according to the use of the Scriptures "(Shabda Vyavahara Yyogya Artha Vyakli Nishpattih p. 287,9), which were there before the world, not only according to the testimony of Scripture and tradition (p. 288), but also because they are the necessary prerequisite for creation: for if one wants to do a thing, one must first remember the word which signifies it (p. 289,3), and so the Vedic words were also evident in the spirit of the Creator before the creation, and created according to them he things (p. 289,5).

But what is meant by "word" in this world-creating sense (p. 289,9)? - We would perhaps answer: the concepts of words. But the Indian cannot give this answer, since he does not have a conscious separation of concept He answers first: by word he understands the Sphota (the bursting open, the sudden awareness of the idea while listening to the letters of the word), and this concept leads to a discussion which is not without interest and which we want to translate as faithfully as possible here episodically as a contribution to the philosophy of language.

Indian gods from other cultures and religions

Here are some of the Indian gods from religions other than Hinduism:

Buddhists believe that there are four main Buddhist gods who are responsible for overseeing the four directions of the world. Known as the Satarawaram gods, they protect righteous Buddhists against the evil of devilish people. They are Dularatha, Virulha, Virupakka and Vaishravana. The other gods are Brahma Gods, Gods of the Pure Land, Sakkra Devandra, Kuwera, Dataraththa, Indra Deva, Goddess Visakha, Panchasika. God Viswakarma and many others. Gautama Buddha was a sage who has been venerated as the main god in Buddhism since this religion was founded according to his teachings.

The Jains believe in the existence of certain heavenly beings known as "devas" who are responsible for all kinds of suffering and who should end up with death. According to Jain beliefs, such beings are not the creators of the earth. Nevertheless, Jainism confirms the presence of gods and goddesses called "Sasanadevatas" and "Sasanadevis". Jain "Tirthankaras" are known to worship these heavenly beings. The four kinds of these gods are the "Bhavanpatis" or gods who reside in residences, "Vyantaras" or intermediate gods, "Jyotiskas" or luminaries, and "Vaimanikas" or astral gods. Vardhamana Mahavira is the last tirthankara of the Jains.

Sikhism declares that there is only one God, which is the basic teaching of this religion. Sikhs believe in the philosophy of "Ik Onkar" or a god. However, it is a common understanding of Sikh Gurus like Guru Nanak that God is present everywhere and in all human beings. Sikhism believes that although God is present, He is only perceptible by people who are willing to give their energy, time and devotion to Him. God has been described in various ways by the Sikh Gurus in their sacred book called "Guru Granth Sahib".

Islam claims the existence of a single god and is convinced of monotheism. "Allah" or God is worshiped as the most powerful creator and sustainer of the universe. The name Allah is derived from the Hebrew and Arabic names of God known as "Elohim" and Allah, respectively. Muslims understand Allah to be all-powerful, incomparable and merciful. Islam speaks of no less than 99 different names of God.

Parsian gods

The Parsees or "Zoroastrians" believe that the gods represent both monotheism and dualism in their religion. Fire is respected and venerated by the Parsees, and many types of fire are used in the various Parsees temples.

Christianity proclaimed God's presence who is eternal life and who created the universe. Jesus Christ is worshiped and respected by all Christians as the merciful God who accepted his crucifixion to save humanity. He is known as the great Savior.

Thus, the Indian gods have formed an essential part of the religious life of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians and other communities since ancient times. In addition to these well-known gods and goddesses, the Indians worship a large number of deities, the listing of which does not stop with the religious beliefs of the people in this country.

See also


  • Brahma - god of creation
  • Difference Between Brahma and Brahman?
  • Gods and Goddesses in Hinduism by Swami Sivananda
  • The imagery of Hinduism
  • SHIVA - The wild, kind God by Wolf-Dieter Storl
  • Gods and Goddesses in Hinduism by Swami Sivananda
  • Hinduism
  • Vedanta for Beginners by Swami Sivananda
  • Vedanta - The Ocean of Wisdom by Swami Vivekananda
  • Paul Deussen: Das System des Vedanta, Elibron Classics, 2nd edition, 1906.
  • Soami Divyanand: Vedamrit - The message of the Vedas. ISBN 3-926696-03-6 (Translation of the Vedas in German, Vol. 1); ISBN 3-926696-13-3 (Vol. 2); ISBN 3-926696-26-5 (Vol. 3)
  • Wilfried Huchzermeyer: The Scriptures of India - History of Sanskrit Literature.( ISBN 3-931172-22-8
  • Moritz Winternitz: History of Indian Literature, Leipzig, 1905-1922, Vol. I - III. Reprint in English translation: Maurice Winternitz: History of Indian Literature, Motilal Barnarsidass, Delhi, 1985, Vol I - III
  • Aurobindo: The secret of the Veda, 2nd edition 1997, Hinder + Deelmann, ISBN 3-873481-65-0
  • Lokamanya Bâl Gangâdhar Tilak: Orion or Recherches sur l'Antiquité des Védas, Milan, Éditions Archè, 1989

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