Which common writing clichés are true

NDL 21st century past and present: 47

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1 NDL 21st Century Past and Present: 47 1. VO - Introduction (Moodle enroll - PW: enroll) Examination: no dates (authors' dates of birth) Why deal with contemporary literature? Language is the central means of communication, literature is a form of reflected, conscious language / written culture. Literature and contemporary literature can bring another reflected language and perspective into position. Wilhelm Vosskamp: Cultures observe themselves in texts Hartmut Böhme: Literature as an excellent form of self-observation by societies (perception of the world as well as reflection on perception) Oliver Jahraus: Contemporary literature as a medium of reflection for those social and psychological issues [...] that address Which period covers contemporary literature? Oliver Jahraus: Contemporary literature as the opposite of literary history My suggestion boils down to defining contemporary literature in terms of its presence. And presence consists in the possibility of having an immediate aesthetic experience, for example, but not exclusively, in reading by the author. For me, contemporary literature is literature that can be experienced at present. This has to do with the presence and performance of the author. Historically, contemporary literature can be defined as an epoch, beginning with 1945 or with the year [] O, if you take the concept of the presence of contemporary literature seriously, it cannot be historically, it must be aesthetically determined, not as historical Representation, but as a performative presence. This notion is entirely up to the living author

2 living author who can enable the experience of literature. It is therefore important to be able to experience this present quality as an aesthetic quality of its own! o Robert Eduard Prutz demanded the present In his lectures on the German literature of the present (1859): The literary criticism should turn to the poets of the present, those poets who still walk among us in flesh and bone, whom we can still see with eyes , to hear with ears that could and could learn and develop from the historian's judgment. Can literary studies deal competently with contemporary literature at all? During the study of literature with the GWL -> the current works at the time are the GWL. However, incompleteness! Many authors who were very important in the GWL in their time are very unknown years later (e.g. Robert Schneider Schlafes brother, then disappeared from focus). Of course, there is also the reverse case. Authors who were rather unimportant during their lifetime, become very important afterwards. Difficulties in literary work with GWL: Methodologically, there is no reason why a contemporary text could not be analyzed from a literary perspective, but there are some particular difficulties: o Lack of temporal distance o Ignorance of the further development and thus difficulty in classifying it in a complete work Making predictions is extremely risky ( e.g. lyric poet who then suddenly only writes novels). o Possible objections by the authors or self-interpretations. (LW is interested in the

3 Text and not mostly for what the author says about it. We smear honey on bread and not bees) o Late discovery of previously unknown evidence of tradition. (Documents etc that can provide a different view of the text can be found) o Overlap with / delimitation of literary criticism (newspaper reviews etc are topical, have different criteria in terms of length and readership). Literary reviews want to give a clear evaluation (taste judgment), in the LW this should be avoided. What tendencies / currents / directions are there in the GWL? One can assume that literary history is a succession of significant ages. Where are we now? LW remains in its character a historical science has a blind spot, the present. Marks unpredictability. GWL is before it becomes history, it is a postponed provocation of literary history. During the postmodern era, many authors held onto the concept of modernity. In order to be able to represent a field of the presentable, one has to look broadly. What is there now in the current literary scene? We are not on one point of a linear line. Although literary criticism does this, it enlivens one's own business. Recurring phrase that is the new, that returns to etc. Books in the category German literature published / published for the first time in the year (overview not possible!) 2 tendencies in literature of the 21st century: question of the historicity of contemporary literature and the presence of history. Need for Reality in Contemporary Culture Davis Shields: Reality Hunger. A Manifesto (2010): The body gets used to a drug and needs a stronger dose in order to experience the thrill. An illusion of reality the idea that

4 something really happened is providing us with that thrill right now. O Brigitta Krumrey Brigitta Krumrey Krumrey: In the current literary landscape there is indeed an abundance of texts that seem to take account of a need for reality. By integrating fragments of reality into a fictional context to a greater extent than before, they expand the citation of foreign text material, which is so characteristic of postmodern text, to include real life. Krumrey, Brigitta; Vogler, Ingo; Derlin, Katharina: Reality Effects in Contemporary German Literature. Introduction. In: Reality Effects in Contemporary German-Language Literature: Postmodern Spellings? Ed. Von Vogler, Ingo; Krumrey, Birgitta; Derlin, Katharina. Heidelberg, Universitätsverlag Winter: 2014, pp. 9-19, here p. 10. In the form of various procedures: o Pronounced mention of brand names o Reference to historical events o Indications that the author's experiences were directly incorporated into the text David Shields Reality Hunger true story, true criminal cases in series, films, etc. Brigitta Krumrey (literature consists of quotations and piecings, nowadays from quotations from reality, many fragments of reality exist) Pop literature Great importance of brand names In the form of various procedures: o Pronounced mention of Brand names o Reference to historical events o Hints that the author's experiences were directly incorporated into the text (boosts marketing!) Manifesto for a relevant realism by Martin R. Dean, Thomas Hettche, Matthias Politicky and Michael Schindhelm (2005) It applies uncomfortable but exciting present to the central place of narration and of what is told

5 and so transcending them. You defend against fictional fears of the future and nostalgic memory nonsense. Pop literature is dead, no more attempting to pose problems about the infantilization of society. Our aim is to create a relevant narration, bypassing the cheeky zeitgeist pronouncements and the fear of contact of the linguistic artists, because we believe that the novel today has a social task: it has to make the forgotten or taboo questions of the present its own, it has to address the problem areas, whether in a local or global context, in a binding representation. [] This presupposes that the writer takes a recognizable position that confirms moral values ​​with aesthetic means. o Die Zeit has included criticism from other contemporary writers (there is a lack of objectivity, the political view, etc.). Other says we have to write good books and avoid bad ones, everything else is irrelevant. Against contentism Alexander Cammann: Because there is actually a disease that is currently rampant within German-language contemporary literature that is drawing ever wider circles: contentism. Today novels mainly tell content, best authenticated autobiographically; the artistic form is less and less important. So novels tell of the attitude towards life of more mature women or of the needs of younger women, or the failed male relationship life is thematized. There are novels about personal illnesses and how they survive, about Berlin yesterday and today, about our presumably bizarre dark life in 2080, about families and their various generational conflicts, about exotic milieus, as authentically as possible, and recently about the village again. (DIE ZEIT No. 38/2016, September 8, 2016) Contentism target group guidance Categorization of the GWL according to thematic classifications.

6 The return of the author? Albert Meier In any case, what has characterized aesthetically reflective, innovation-minded literature since around the turn of the millennium is that it always works emphatically with the effects of reality in a wide variety of ways. The strongest and, especially at the moment (2013), almost epidemically rampant reality effect can be seen in the author, i.e. in the empirical instance, which makes up the most elementary of all possible conditions of poetry and is currently brought to bear again and again in the texts. Albert Meier literature autofiction (mixture of the autobiographical and the fictional) makes use of a concept that has long been developed. (Thomas Klavinic That's me); Texts cross borders by incorporating car figures into the text and thus building up concepts (presence in the author's text). The public seems to be extremely interested in it, and it always plays a major role, also in literary reviews. Literary critic Mangold names the phenomenon (article in Der Zeit): The author's body has never been as present as it is in contemporary literature. What is Austrian literature? Differentiation vs. incorporation in German studies Different historical and social requirements (e.g. 1934/1938/1955) National literary traditions What relevance do national categories have for the GWL ?! History of German studies go back: Since the 1970s, the Austrian Germ. tries to describe an independent Austrian literature (development). Lit. in Austria. written in German can be read in D & Switzerland -> literature space that transcends borders.

7! Until 1989 the Federal German did not bother German was German.! In the 1960s, Benno von Wiese published a paperback Germany tells ...! Book Winkels published in 2005 (Chairman of the Bachmann Prize) Good Signs, German Literature (3 authors who could easily be assigned to Austrian literature.! The general conditions were ignored; 1934 was a more decisive turning point than 1933, 1938 for Ö a decisive date (for D already 1933) measured with different standards and ignored this. Austrian literature of the late 60s, 70s and early 80s Anti Heimatliteratur (work: Blasmusikpop happy, finally no antiheimatwerk)! Relevance for the present? What do we do with an author like Kathrin Röggla die in Slzbg was born, studied and has lived in Berlin since 1992, who repeatedly bases her text on global issues? What do we do with authors who are not German native speakers who came to Austria through migration and who write? Is that now Austrian literature? Literature which does not arise in the first language, we come to the limit of literature.! Ödon von Horvath best example! Daniel Kehlmann Born in Munich in 1975, son of a German director (Michael Kehlmann) and a German actress. Moved to Vienna in 1981, he studies here, now lives in Berlin and Vienna -> Austrian author? Yes No? SEMESTER PLAN Introduction of the GW literature literature and memory Maja Haderlap: Angel of Forgetting Literature and Memory 2 Hanna Sukare: Dust Tongue Documentary Literature 1 Josef Haslinger: Jachymov Documentary Literature 2 Ludwig Laher: Process of social criticism 1 Kathrin Röggla: we don't sleep social criticism 2 Jürg Amann: Wohin because we have other spellings Monika Helfer: The outdoor bar Transnational Literature 1 Dimitre Dinev Engelszungen

8 Transnational Literature 2 Vladimir Vertlib: The Special Memory of Rosa Masur Two examples of current poetry Nadja Küchenmeister: Unter dem Wacholder Oral examinations 2nd VO - Literature business as a cultural asset Book from the 15th century as a commodity (book printing) When a book comes onto the market, it doesn't matter the author but also the publisher. Publishing houses also essentially determine the titles of literary texts (increase sales chances) GDR author (novella, The Foreign Friend)! Title was occupied by non-fiction, was renamed Dragon's Blood. The literary business consists of many actors together and sometimes also act against each other in a system. The system has become very confusing.

9 Book market: the double character of books: goods and cultural assets. In some countries it is a consequence of the fact that there is something called fixed book prices. Legally regulated in Austria and Germany -> book costs the same everywhere. Why do you do that? So that big chains don't get discounted prices from publishers. Strong concentration processes in the book trade: a few large publishers or media groups dominate the market. John Thomson: The book market is split by three: o Rise of powerful retail chains (Amazon); o Rise of huge publishing cooperations (Penguinbooks merged); o Influential literary agents (organize mediators between author and publisher and author and public) These three increase the pressure of selection. Thanks to in-house authors who give the publisher a good name -> a much higher chance of being noticed by a large publisher Digitization: E-books New forms of distribution, new players in the book market: Amazon, Apple From upheaval to new beginnings The book market in Germany 2015 sales development, 3 % Million euros million euros Distribution channels: o Retail book trade (excluding e-commerce) 4.43 billion EUR o Department stores 0.11 billion EUR o Mail order book trade 0.12 billion EUR o Internet book trade 1.60 billion EUR o *****

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12 bestseller lists vs. best lists (publishers are reluctant and imprecise to publish sales figures; lists constructed by detours; for decades, bestseller lists have sent questionnaires to bookstores, 75 best-selling books from the previous week, 15 tick all sheets

13 added together and a bestseller list was created; Numbers mostly very imprecise and based on gut feeling) SPIEGEL bestseller list Austrian bestseller list Fiction Hardcover ORF best list October 2016 Jury decisions: Best list = highly selective excerpt: actually book tips SWR best list (manipulated list !! Otherwise only school books would be in the first places in September!) Opposite direction of the bestseller lists: list of the best (selected literary critics put together the best books, it is about good literature and not about sales figures; it suggests that the jury has read all of these books, but this is not the case -> there is a point system: the individual jurors (come from different media) list their 4 book tips of the month) Professionalization of the training of authors: o Authors are part of a lively business not just writers but also book presentations, advertisements, etc. o Leipzig Institute of Literature: Josef Haslinger, Michael Lentz, Hans Ulrich Treichel o literature Hildesheim institute: Hanns Josef Ortheil o Language art class at the University of Vienna for Applied Arts o School for Poetry in Vienna Multimedia staging by authors Attention as a central resource

14 Professionalization of the media presence: o Interviews o Columns in print media etc. o Presence in general interest media o Internet presence (FB, blogs, ...) Awareness goes beyond the readership. As far as interviews are concerned, the authors are now professionally trained ! Some authors became figures in the media world, but not because of their literary works (gossip press, talk shows). Optical stylization at the end of the 90s: Author Hermann Judith, the photo on her book was based on Virginia Woolfe. (No coincidence, there are several who are adapting, such as Bettina Galvagni) New works by German-speaking authors appeared in the mid to late 90s. Pseudonymous literary public Loss of overall social relevance of the literary public Literary reporting disappears from TV Few explicit literary programs Traditional literary criticism with little significance for the purchase decision New trend: customer reviews, recommendations via social media Event character of literature: festivals, readings, poetry slams How do I visualize literature in new media? -> Much stronger author presence (interviews, photos, etc.) readings as a separate form of literary communication (slide 15 ***)

15 - The importance of the author's presence in flesh and bone has become its own form of literary communication - Readings have become good sources of income (in German-speaking countries; authors receive around 10% gross from the book price; single reading costs at least 380 in Austria) Attention Literary institutions in Vienna: Alte Schmiede Literarisches Quartier Austrian Society for Literature Literature House Vienna Literature Archive of the ÖNB Austrian Literature Museum Guest Lecture: Readings in Vienna per year Readings in Vienna per year Austrian Society for Literature founded in 1961 by Wolfgang Kraus

The 16 1960s were the moment when the state funding for literature began. The Society for Literature tried to include the entire field of literature from different areas. Tasks: through the Iron Curtain people were invited to Vienna by invitation from exiled authors Current activities: archive covers 50 years of literature, but not worked through. 65 libraries in Austria are looked after 30 translation grants are operated - 3rd VO - Haderlap Angel of Forgetting deals with people who have long been locked in this cellar of the past. Maja Haderlap Angel of Forgetting Between the alleged and the actual history of Austria there is a no man's land in which one can get lost. I see myself shuttling back and forth between a dark, forgotten cellar compartment of the House of Austria and its bright, richly furnished rooms. Nobody in the bright rooms seems to suspect or is able to imagine that there are people in this building who have been locked by politics in the past basement, where they have been attacked and poisoned by their own memories. Construction of literary memory, literary history paradigm of remembrance literature At the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, there was a boom in texts on NS and the post-war period. Eg: Robert Schindel Born Bernhard Schlick The reader Günther Grass in the crab walk

17 Katharina Hacker A kind of love Uwe Timm Using the example of my brother Uwe Tellkamp: The Josef Haslinger Jachymov Tower It is about a broad group of texts that Michael Braun called the paradigm of memory literature. Dealing with the history (history of violence) of the 20th century has reached great complexity. (Documentaries, experiments, etc.) History: there are many parallel stories / points of view that are relevant. Paradigm responds to social need (post-reflection of historical events) Clearly: the memory function of literature crystallizing out. (Memories are literary; no coincidence, since contemporary witnesses are disappearing more and more) Memories pass from communicative to cultural memory. (Aleida v Jan Assmann) Human collectives have no cultural memory, they make one. -> must be externalized (writings, literary texts, dances etc.) Literature as part of cultural memory - what is remembered? - What is the relationship between the respective literary memory and the official cultural memory? - Who remembers? From what perspective? - When is the reminder? - How do you remember? In what literary form? In Austria, this is what the official memory is all about early after the war: school books

18 Counter-memory in literature eg Thomas Mann Heldenplatz Who remembers? Primary witnesses (experienced by oneself), secondary witnesses, third generation witnesses (from books, films, teaching knowledge) When is remembered? End of the 20th / beginning of the 21st century Maja Haderlap Born in 1961 in Zelena Kapla / Eisenkappel in Carinthia Her elementary school teacher was the Carinthian author Florjan Lipuš, who wrote in Slovenian, studied theater studies and German at the University of Vienna Cultural policy in Carinthia from 1946 to 1976 and the change in the function of Slovenian amateur play as well as its significance for Slovenian cultural practice in Carinthia 1992 to 2007 chief dramaturge at the Landestheater Klagenfurt (artistic director Dietmar Pflegerl) Poet: since 1983 she has published poems in Slovenian Bachmann Prize 2011 (excerpt from Engel des Vergessens), Rauriser Literature Prize 2012 So far last book: long transit. Poems (2014). Angel of oblivion autobiographical references With my writing in Slovenian I wanted to send a signal that the second, autochthonous language in Carinthia should not be ignored. Then I realized that I couldn't get past the German language and didn't want to get past it. Although I still speak and use Slovenian, my literary texts are written in German. Switching the literary language is a complicated, difficult process. I experienced it not only as a form of self-expansion, but also as failure and loss. Factuality and fictionality Maja Haderlap in an interview:

19 The factual are the mosaic stones on which the text is based. What I say about relatives and neighbors actually happened. Everything else, however, is literature, a staging, escalation. In this respect, the novel moves far beyond autobiographical memory. This story, these scenes have a lot to do with my biography. During the writing, however, the story has taken on a life of its own, has become a literary narrative. Angel of Oblivion is not a simple memory book. I tell this girl, it doesn't tell itself, and I try to keep my distance from what is happening. It is precisely this distance that allows me to clearly see the traces that the war has left on people. The factual are the mosaic stones on which the text is based. What I say about relatives and neighbors actually happened. Everything else is literature, a staging, exaggeration. IN SO FAR, THE NOVEL MOVES FAR BEYOND AUTOBIOGRAPHIC REMEMBERING Uncle Anton Haderlap published a memory book in 2008, Memories of a Carinthian Slovenian on Peace and War

20 In the family collective effort to take care of the repressed part of Austrian history. Examination: being able to tell meaningfully coherent text from specific angles. A novel moves with the protagonist as she grows up. When my little girl begins to grow up, the narrative also changes. Presence of the past in the present I, on the other hand, believe grandmother's word and turn the crank enthusiastically when she roasts the oats for the coffee. I listen to her when she tells how many people she has already cooked for, back then at home when there were servants and maids and a lot of children. She says she also stole food for herself and the others, she looked for every potato peel, for everything that seemed edible, back when she washed the kettles, she says she was lucky that she got there be in the kitchen, in the warehouse, I know. Sensual impressions (rural idyll) important for souvenir literature! In Grandmother's memory, eating is associated with being very hungry. Told in the present tense, this gives the past a strong presence. The choice of the present tense also triggered criticism. Ulrich Greiner (in DIE ZEIT): The present tense is suitable for poetic sketching; But it is useless for the construction of historical space. Snippets of the history of violence keep reappearing, girls can hardly deal with them, exceed their emotional perception, their father repeatedly intends to take his own life. I can feel that he's after my childhood, feel that he stabbed my back! Memory of her father's violence is so present for the girl as if he were stabbing her in the back.

21 presence d. Vgh. in childish imaginations War is a devious fisherman of men. He has thrown his net at the adults and holds them captive with his shards of death, with his memory junk. Just a little carelessness, a brief slack in attention, he is already pulling his nets together, he has father attached to his memory hook, father is already running for his life, he is already trying to escape his omnipotence. The war appears suddenly in the fleeting sentences, attacks from the cover of darkness. He makes his prisoners tremble in the net and pretends for months in order to prepare a new attack as soon as he is forgotten. Once he is weakened, he is even invited into the house, his armor is laughed at, believing that he can make him friendly, the table set for him, the bed prepared for him. War / trauma / death: not argued logically but personified. not get along Due to the presence of trauma in the grandparents' generation -> loss of world trust also in the grandchildren's generation of narrative homodiegetic - autodiegetic perspective initially close to the experiencing ego Dramatic mode: apparently immediate perceptions, BUT: conscious reconstruction of memories: indirect speech, subjunctive, inquit formulas ( she said) As the ore grows older, increasingly distant mode, reflexive + essayistic passages Political reflection instead of direct experience The child thinks that he should let go of the dead, which he is pulling behind him like a rickety wooden horse []. It wants to bury its dead, the drowned kitchen assistant, the slain, shot and hanged, the unknown dead from grandmother

22 stories. (133) I find it difficult to recover from the devastation that a waking night with Father wreaked in me, in which we all could not sleep because he did not want to calm down. I am worn down by its attacks of destruction and can not find any language that could trace the force of its eruptions. My attempts to speak remain meek stammering and silence because I am embarrassed by my bewilderment and because I am ashamed of father. The memories of the time of WWII are presented again and again and very clearly marked as indirect speech. Grandma says something conspicuously: Subjunctive 1 (it was good that ... because it gave her ...) -> Grammar that creates distance Traumatic past is very present in her life (girl). First-person narrator overhears conversation between grandmother and father (atrocities in WWII) The narrative mode is changed, newer distance is established as a protective mechanism. Narrator is moved to the third person singular. Father thinks, sometimes the child thinks -> transmission of trauma. Grandmother tells the first-person narrator about her experiences in the concentration camp while she was still at elementary school. She was arrested by the Nazis in 1943 (her husband resisted the partisans). Later more analytical, more abstract words regarding the narrative. Question of forgetting in the center. The end of the novel is made up of (Walter Benjamin's) famous historical-philosophical view. Angel of History: There is a picture of Klee called Angelus Novus. An angel is depicted on it who looks as if he is about to move away from something he is staring at. His eyes are wide open, his mouth is open and his wings are spread out. The angel of history

23 must look like this. He has turned his face to the past. Wherever a chain of incidents appears before us, he sees a single catastrophe that incessantly piles rubble upon rubble and hurls it at his feet. He would like to linger, wake the dead and put what has been broken together. But a storm - starting point: Here he drafts what is opposed to traditional bourgeois historiography. Sequence of catastrophe reaching into the present, angel is driven into the future by the storm that blows from the paradise of the past (mythical origin, not historical). - The angel of oblivion: Paradox: only when the story has been told can the narrator forget it, i.e. no longer be burdened by it: the angel of oblivion may have forgotten to erase the traces of the past from my memory. He let my sentences collide with floating debris and broken pieces, so that they injure themselves, so that they sharpen themselves. I will not see this angel. It will have no shape. It will go away in the books. It will be a narrative. (The story is in the form of the novel) 4th VO - Sukare Literature and Memory Story Tales 2 Hanna Sukare Staubzunge (Salzburg, Vienna: Otto Müller 2015) Family constellation The constellation of the post-war family In the morning, the father's prayer for cocoa and oatmeal sinks, at noon it is streaked it in the soup, in the evening it smells from the cheese sandwiches.

24 Dear Heavenly Father, begins the Father on earth, we thank you for these gifts, he continues, and we ask you to bless them, amen. Often the prayer is followed by the daily motto of the Herrenhut Brethren and another invocation. Come, Lord Jesus, be our guest and bless what you have given us, the children say. You look at the door to see if anyone else is coming, the Lord Jesus in a dark suit, why else should the father call him Lord. The Father turns to the Father in Heaven, sometimes he speaks to the Lord Jesus Christ, sometimes with a Holy Spirit, he gives the children silence, rarely mentions them by name, Matthias, Adele. He doesn't say a word about his earthly relatives, doesn't show a picture! paradigmatic situation; Roll ; Grace at certain meals; Father of Protestant pastor; Family lives in Germany, but are actually from Austria; Question about origin and identity; Authoritarian father, patriarchal rule over family endowed with dual identity (father and pastor); Father characterizes cold feeling especially towards the children; Children are jealous of unearthly relatives; Mother also cold-hearted dealing with children! second element: presence of what could be described as black pedagogy; Mother does not speak, for days she addresses neither a word nor a sentence to the children; she orders punishments that the father performs in the evening; Discipline should become the second skin of the children! Consequences of growing up the children like this: Matthi's later wife says the family history repeats itself.! Generation-typical family constellation: dogged silence of the parents (war generation, born 1920s) ;! Family memory that is questioned; What happened to the family; Visualizing the past; the silence makes the children curious; Children's curiosity some questions are answered, with others mother slaps the children on the mouth (you don't talk about that, you don't ask that)! Initial constellation: violent family, consequences for children;

25 !! Matthias remains very distant from his family, also towards his own (almost only addressed by his last name, often calls himself that)! Adele, contrary to Matthi, rebels against parents, then takes care of demented old mother; often asks about parents' origin; this is about the question of passing on knowledge of the past as well as knowledge of the life of parents and grandparents.! is about generation of the bereaved! Complex origins: passing on knowledge between the generations Nothing interests Deli as much as the origins of their parents. Fau always gave evasive answers to these questions. Deli was nearly fifty when she found out her paternal grandfather's name. It was different with Jad. She often told her escape story. Deli listened to her every time as carefully as if she were hearing the story for the first time; she threw in questions, which Jad often answered, to Deli's astonishment. In those moments, Jad lived entirely in her memory, forgetting to be silent. To find out more about Jad's family, Deli sometimes drove to Frantzek, Jad's sister who lived in Mecklenburg.! The novel takes on a new dimension: research leads to stories closely related to National Socialism. Research for Adele -> Liberation from her previous history, from her burden of parents.

26 From family history to involvement in the history of violence in the 20th century Jad was born in 1923 in Łódź, Poland. Jad had five lives. The first Jad was a Catholic Polish woman with two mother tongues in Poland. The second Jad was a Catholic German in the Nazi Reichsgau Wartheland, who was careful not to speak Polish on the street. The third Jad was a refugee without a state. The fourth Jad was Mrs. Pastor and spoke only German to me. The fifth Jad had forgotten her first four lives.! The question of historical space where the novel is located opens up.! What does a family have in common with the history of Lodz? (Connection Lodz Bad Ischl); Historical connection; Essential medium in

27 Roman: a box of chocolates in which Jad keeps her mother's documents (Adele's grandmother); Adele investigates these documents, leads to Lodz, Łódź: Multilingualism vs. Nationalism Magdalena's birth was in 1900 in Lodz, which at that time belonged to the Russian Empire. When Magdalena learns to speak, she learns Polish and German, Magdalena gets her first passport. She gets in the from the tsarist occupiers in Lodz, it is a Russian passport with Cyrillic letters. [] In 1918 Magdalena turns 18 and Poland is reborn. Lodz shook off the occupiers and regained Polish as their mother tongue, the Lodz people speak Polish or Yiddish or German. All Lodz women understand something of the three languages ​​and can talk to all other Lodzians.(77) when Lodz becomes Litzmannstadt in 1940: The National Socialists begin to classify people. (81): O Jews from Lodz O People's Lists Categories 1,2,3,4 After the Wehrmacht was handed over to Poland, Lodz was renamed (1940) to Lietzmannstadt; The question of belonging is becoming a vital factor for the Łódź people. (different colored ID cards) forced nationality tears rifts in multicultural families (bilingual families have to choose one side) -> in South Tyrol eg: Italians or Germans? If known to Germany, one had to emigrate KZ Kulmhof / Chelmno In November 1941, the first National Socialist extermination camp was established in the municipality of Chelmno (Kulmhof), 70 kilometers west of Lodz. [] [] At the beginning of December 1941, the first Jews from the surrounding area arrived in Chelmno. In the castle, SS men told the Jews that they would be relocated to a labor camp and would therefore have to bathe beforehand. Then they got over

28 a boarded ramp was driven into a gas truck. A special device directed the engine exhaust into the box body of the car in which the victims were locked. The murdered people were then buried in the "forest camp" after a work detachment made up of Jews had searched the dead for hidden valuables. After a while, the SS also killed these labor prisoners and replaced them with Jews from new transports. At the beginning of 1942, mainly Jewish residents from the Lodz ghetto were murdered with exhaust fumes in Chelmno. This also included Jews deported to Lodz from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Luxembourg. [] In the summer of 1944 the "Sonderkommando Kulmhof" returned to Chelmno to murder the Jews from the Lodz ghetto who were still alive. Within three weeks the SS killed more than Jews in gas vans. About other ghetto residents were deported to Auschwitz to be murdered. The "Sonderkommando Kulmhof" stayed in Chelmno until January 1945 to burn the corpses in order to destroy all evidence of the mass murder. Shortly before the Red Army reached Chelmno, the SS left the camp on January 17, 1945. Overall, at least people, mainly Jews and some "gypsies", were murdered with poison gas in Chelmno. In Germany, the Holocaust family history (Raul Hilberg) is paradigmatic for the war generation: Denial of knowledge about the Holocaust O Jad said: We didn't hear anything about the ghetto. (96) O When Jad drove to Litzmannstadt by car, she had to go through Hohensteinerstrasse, past the ghetto. We didn't notice anything about the ghetto and that about the Jews, that's just not true. (124) O the hidden, the hidden, and the hidden again, replied Jad. Can't this finally stop? Nobody knew what they did to the Jews. Nobody could know that. -> Involvement as witness / follower / accomplice; -> Paradigmatic: denial;

29 Big role in the novel: Escape, Jad and Magdalena flee from the Red Army; narrated in a very reduced manner in individual episodes; Flight and conversion O arrival in Bad Ischl: the same flags are blowing here as over the tailoring shop in Litzmannstadt. (86) O missionaries from the Bible Belt (USA): The missionaries do not care that Magdalena in Ischl is not a paying guest, but a refugee; They proclaim the good news and offer more than friendship: an apartment in the kingdom of God. Magdalena accepts that as her new home and moves in. (89) O Jad walled up her first life. Behind the wall are Jupp, the earth-brown uniform and the oath on the Fiihrer. A conversion strips the old skin, turns years of life into a blank sheet. Jad's place of conversion was Bad Ischl.! Polish refugees are allowed to sew traditional costumes (allusion: Jews were prohibited from wearing traditional costumes)! Integration into religious community combined with silence; Old identity is being wiped out and replaced with a new religious identity, which is associated with silence about what one used to be.! Dust tongue can't talk about what happened! Enough. Adele rips off to Lodz, into the ghetto, speaks to Polish women, goes to congresses on the subject, does historical research in archives, she then gets to know a distant relative (from the branch of the great-grandparents) who lives in Poland, and they talk about common history ;! The author wrote Roman a few years before publication, gave up hope of publication, met Otto Müller's friend, who then published it.! Remembrance work of the bereaved Adele as a searcher for the secret O search trip to Lodz with a guided tour through the sites of the Nazi mass murder O conversations with Polish women O historical research in archives etc. O learning Polish

30 O At the end: Close relationship with Janina Austrian-Polish reconciliation on an individual level O Memorial march on the traces of Jewish emigrants after the war: Alpine Peace Crossing! Comparison: Angel of Forgetting vs Tongue of Dust FOIL Narrative O no continuous, even narrative flow different perspectives and stillages O multi-perspective narration: changing foci and narrative voices O different perspectives on the past: titling of the individual chapters with the names of the characters in the center O describes the narrative a path from a burdened, difficult family memory to the representation of the family constellation, the narration of the previous stories to active remembrance and memory work

31 4th VO - Haslinger Documentary Literature Josef Haslinger: Jáchymov (Roman, Frankfurt / M .: Fischer 2011) Lexicon definition of documentary literature Documentary literature, generic collective term for socially critical and politically oriented forms of literature, which are made from text materials found in everyday life such as reports, minutes, files , Letters or tape recordings are composed. With the recourse to documents and facts of extra-literary reality, the D. programmatically differentiates itself from the design of fictitious lit. worlds and a specifically aesthetic reference to reality. Instead, the focus is on the authenticity of what is depicted. This is contradicted by the fact that the D. also only refers to reality in a secondary manner through the texts. Even if the D. by assembly and

32 collage of documentary quotations that technically reproduces foreign elements directly, the composing intervention of the author, who selects and arranges the documentary material, always remains formative. An immediate, unadulterated and authentic reproduction extra. Reality thus remains an unmatched ideal, even if assembly largely takes a back seat and the document as in the protocol and process lit. gets greater intrinsic value. [] Semi-documentarism, on the other hand, does not even strive for this ideal and combines factual quotations with fictional text passages. Metzler Literature Lexicon. - Working with found texts from the everyday world - programmatic delimitation of the idea of ​​fictional reality that can be found again and again - literature secondary reference of reality (reality can be told about means you have to choose a perspective, choose material, arrange it, find order)

33 The Sorrows of Young Werther JWGoethe (letter novel, contemporary documentation, refers to suicide among his own circle of acquaintances) factual novels Rudolf Brunngraber (1936 Radium, novel of an element) mid-1960s -> In the case of J. Robert Oppenheimer (political instrumentalization of nuclear power plants. ..) Peter Weiss The investigation (artful, daring discussion; chants that try to work with the material from the largest existing Holocaust trial) Erich Hackl Farewell to Sidonie Theses on Documentary Literature 1 Nikolaus Miller: Prolegomena to a Poetics of Documentary Literature. Munich: Fink Documentary literature is based on recognizable documentary material. 2. It gives meaning to the documentary material and thus makes it the medium of a mostly political statement 3. It emphasizes the material value of the documentary material and thus gives the message conveyed by it the form of insight 4. Documentary literature is an expression of a self-doubt in literature, which questions its specific aesthetic relation to reality there is no clear form, various different forms! stands between the recognized genres and forms without a definable place

34

35 (dies of leukemia at the age of 46) Events largely unknown in Europe (world championship team disappears, is arrested; hardly any traces of riot or demonstration found) How did Haslinger come to deal with this material? He says he'll find the story or she'll find him. In an interview in the Prager Zeitung: I met Bohumil Modry's daughter in 1988, she told her story, but at that time it was impossible for me to write about it. He changed his mind because he regularly drives through the Czech Republic for job-related reasons. He began to make detours, came to Jachymov, looked at the museum, there was a special exhibition in an adjoining room, uniforms, death certificates, all in Czech. When he was back in Vienna he asked, it was about the labor camp and he started to research. Documentary material

36 Through his acquaintance with the actress and dancer Blanka Modrá, Haslinger gained access to trial files, interrogation protocols and personal documents. In the final report of the state police to the examining magistrate about the interrogations of the ice hockey players, it says at one point: If we make a clear analysis of the preliminary investigations, we can see that it was high time that this purulent and muddy core of so-called athletes, some Years of representing our democratic republic. With their planned flight abroad, they intended to damage our state and bring it to international disgrace. The result would have been horrific for us and would have made us look ridiculous in capitalist foreign countries. Finally, it must be added that all those arrested [] deny their actions and, as the interrogations showed, they do so with a great deal of insolence. The investigation was conducted by State Police Officer No. (P. 211) He builds a fictional framework narrative around the narration of these historical events, the story of the ice hockey players. Dream-like short stories contained in the text manuscript, repeatedly inserted into the father's story, the father's voice from the father's letters (Haslinger was allowed to use original letters), the voice of the authorities, etc.

37 Narrator -> stands outside the narrated world 3rd narrative level Father gets a voice through his letters, the authorities get their voice through the minutes, documents, etc. Increasing dramaturgy of the revelation (no tension on the outcome, it is clear from the start that it is a tragic fate) The focus is on the course of the action, what conditions, what happens, how ... (does not depend on the outcome)

38 Jachymov Real place, macabre double standard: place where Findeisen goes to get well and where on the other hand the forced labor camp was. Gulag Headquarters of the camps Was created for opponents of the regime; Jáchymov: Forced labor in the Gulag The communists have set up eighteen labor camps for prisoners here in Jáchymov. They looked exactly like German concentration camps, with barracks, barbed wire, punishment bunkers, roll call areas and watchtowers. As if they had taken over the plans from the Nazis. The roll call square was called Apel plac. And above the entrance to the camp it read: Freedom through work. (55-56) At that time, more than 1,000 prisoners were employed in the Jáchymov uranium mines. Whatever they had been in the previous life, now they were all miners, whose lives mainly took place in damp tunnels []. If someone could not meet the work standard, he had to work another shift in the prisoner’s clothing soaked with radioactive water and without food to catch up with the target again. After eight hours of hard work, another eight hours of drilling, blasting and clearing away. Tidying away meant loading the uranium ore into the carts with your bare hands. (241) Parallels between National Socialist and Stalinist rule What the text has undoubtedly set itself as the goal: to point out a forgotten chapter in European history, the long-time General Secretary of the Communist Party Rudolf Slansky (of Jewish origin) is indicted, sentenced to death and hanged. A novel as a reminder of the Stalinist era, the camps, the people. The existence of the Soviet Union's forced labor camps has long been questioned and played down.

39 Critical examination of Stalinism Jáchymov conducts a historically long neglected examination of the oppressive system of Austria's communist neighbors without the ideological goals of the Cold War. Gulag literature (selection): BUBER-NEUMANN Margarete, As a prisoner with Stalin and Hitler, Zurich, Europa Verlag, 1949, including: Munich, Verlag der Twelve, LIPPER Elinor, Eleven years in Soviet prisons and camps, Zurich, Oprecht, SOLSCHENIZYN Alexander, A day in the life of Iwan Denissowitsch, Munich, Droemer, Knaur, SOLSCHENIZYN Alexander, The Gulag Archipelago. 3 volumes. Bern, Munich, Scherz, SCHALAMOW Warlam, Article 58: The records of prisoner Schalanow (sic!), Cologne, Middelhauve, DERS., Kolyma: Insel im Archipel, Munich, Vienna, Langen-Müller, Haslinger tells from a distance, not as Affected (semi-documentarism, he used the possibilities of this form very impressively and gave a literary memorial to a victim of Stalinism)

40 6.VO - Laher Documentary literature 2 texts that intervene, take a position ... Ludwig Laher proceedings (novel; subject: asylum, refugees, human rights) About the author: Ludwig Laher was born on December 11, 1955 in Linz, studied German in Salzburg , English and Classical Philology Dissertation on Grenada's contemporary literature worked as an AHS teacher and university lecturer. Since 1988 he has worked exclusively as a freelance writer

41 Board member of the Association of Austrian Authors (IGAA) and the Austrian Commission for UNESCO (ÖUK) President of the European Artists' Council Writes many documentary texts, very consistently self-acting in front of the easel no linear narrative flow of a life story developed, fragmentary recall of the life of the forgotten artist 1999 Wolfgang Amadeus Junior Mozart son Sein (second son Franz Xaver Mozart; mother Konstanze had a fatal idea: son should also become a composer, to seal this at the age of 2, renamed Wolfgang Amadeus; is always compared with father; was quite a good pianist, however, the figure of his deceased father was always seen in him) -> no linear life story unfolded (dedicated to Vormärz poet Ferdinand Sauter, 46 texts, all his life refused to collect them in a book)! no neutral narrator but loudly used as partisans of his protagonists

42 Heart, meat, disdain (regional expression of National Socialism; education camp in Upper Austria (Weiher); people from the region imprisoned who behaved improperly from the point of view of the authorities (e.g. lazy work) -> Aryan prisoners; public prosecutor in the 3rd Reich (files!) campaigned for the imprisoned (in the 3rd Reich against the guards of the 3rd Reich); the camp was then reworked into a gypsy camp; the title is a quote by the guard, who always announced this as the cause of death, heart flesh disapproval. No non-fiction, strong presence of the narrator , post-history is also told. And take what comes (2007; story of a Roma girl who is driven from homes to prostitution on the Austria-Czech border) Less indignation, narrator takes a back seat. -> How man with man bypasses the newest book (publisher changed) Bitter (From National Socialism and Nachzeit, tells the story of a war criminal Fritz Kranebitter; after National Socialism only 1 year imprisonment and loss of civil service status) All texts documented; the lines of research will determine whether this book will come out. He says: You don't have to invent the really exciting topics.

43 Roman Procedure (2011) Ludwig Laher Addressed 2 levels with title: Asylum procedure Procedural nature of the protagonist's situation as well as dealing with the subject of asylum. At the end, the author's comments: Narrative prose based on exact research. It is a matter of construction and not of chronological case history.

44 Main actress Jelena Savicevic lives under tragic family circumstances, father very aggressive, alcoholic, also shoots mother once; Siblings die of fire, mother dies of illness; She is kidnapped by Albanians and raped several times, two suicide attempts, flees to Austria, then the trial begins. their applications are rejected several times, and the outcome of the proceedings is still open at the end of the day. The narrator repeatedly comments, for example, about Jelena's behavior. There is certainly no calculation behind it when she says something like that. The narrator has the overall context of the plot, the text also jumps here and there into the inner perspective of the protagonist, e.g. during the kidnapping. Case history accompanies the recording of the written protocols, it says something other than what ultimately ends up in the file.Asylum procedures no longer exist in this form, new system in 2014. (Slide 6 shows how things have been going on in Austria since 2015) Judge Dr. Zellweger, likes to talk from the sewing box; Third perspective: Conversations with lawyer for human rights and asylum procedures Dr. Wilfried Roither

45 Parallel history of Nazi persecution (family can flee to Great Britain just in time). Most of the attention is on son Kurt. Refugee helper Elfriede Kellermann (comes from a middle-class Viennese background) Anonymous voice (in clichéd form the asylum seeker scolds angry citizens who have their say here) Framework: Demonstration against asylum policy of the Minister of the Interior (currently politically formulated in present tense) to make plausible what is going on (asylum procedure). What is added (without developed from an eyewitness perspective): Specific situations painted -> inner perspective of the protagonist (fears, thoughts, feelings, hopes) thanks to the inventive spirit of the author. Different modes of statement mixed: researched and factual with invented

46 How great is the artistic freedom in such books? Hackl: I am only allowed to use my imagination carefully where there are no facts

47 -> gap between rule of law and humanity; Narrator intervenes

48 Main character in the first asylum procedure Question misunderstood (Are you sick? She answered NO, because she thought it was about physical illness) What Laher makes clear here is the violence that is also in the linguistic etiquette. Asylum seekers are stripped of their names, male abbreviation (although it is about raped women). The interpreter is Kosovar Albanian, speaks little Serbian, and translates incorrectly. Text shows multiple transformation processes, from the experience of Jelena to the procedure. Text makes it clear that there are too few interpreters and too few officials.

49 works like this can be viewed as political intervention. 7.VO - Röggla

50 Literature as social criticism I kathrin röggla: we don't sleep (2004) / those who are alert (2010) Oral examinations several dates in February 2017 (enter the list at the office door from the beginning of January!) Additions: The alert Röggla / one text can be deleted! For the ruler from overseas Teresa Präauer essay: In the rumor mill she is talking about 3 miserable forms of realism. We don't sleep (roman 2004) based on interviews with representatives of the New Economy (top performers of neoliberal society) alienated interview situation 6 figures: o silke mertens, key account manager, 37 o nicole damaschke, intern, 24 o andrea bülow, online editor, 42 o sven, no, not it supporter, 34 o oliver hannes bender, senior associate, 34 o mr gehringer, partner, 48 making discourse and perception patterns, specific habitus forms, social values ​​and power relations recognizable. 33 structured units (chapters) it remains open who pronounces the indirect speech (narrator)

51 Theoretical foundation: Michel Faucault's discourse theory Who does this include us? heterogeneous group, from intern to partner. Common ground? Similar standard of living, pressure to perform of a similar kind (little sleep, how well one gets along with it). We are constituted by the working atmosphere and working conditions. Compulsion of self-optimization. Theoretical reference points for Rögglas writing

52 prepares for texts with theoretical work (as well as interviews, research, etc.) Die Alarmbaren (2010) 7 different catastrophe scenarios 7 different literary approaches dealing with specific catastrophe narratives perception of a world in a state of emergency media discourse and behavioral options here it is about a communication Developing the coming events, that's why you came here, that's why you sit in front of this window front and look out, or has he misunderstood something?

53

54 didn't she follow me in every scenario i created? All the BSE hysteria, asbestos fears, subtle fears, Alzheimer's warnings, pre-flu warnings. Cell phone radiation fears that preceded the history of the climate they would never come across anything to me, nothing to climate scientists, but for me: all the time these biologists, chemists, geophysicists, hydrologists, fire ecologists, nuclear medicine, insurance lawyers, civil engineers ICH tells the meaning of alienated repetition cultures in the present tense it is never entirely about the catastrophe, it is about common linguistic templates and not about an event.

55 The function of indirect speech creates distance, detached from everyday language, distance-producing complex form of speech, media construction on site His speech situation refuses to do so

56 continuous; Indirect speech is also a sign of uncertainty, because the spoken object is separated from what is said (the statement is from someone else). Speech is reproduced by someone else. It is not pronounced immediately decoupled from the object. No picture of an involved figure but speech voice. On poetics Rögglas Medial constraints etc central importance for Röggla in dealing with how reality forms (not without having media) Röggla has a number of literary points of reference that were important for her writing Elfriede Jelinek (the way she wrote and is written considered enlightening and inspiring point energy: anger, rebellion)

57 Relationship between politics and literature: Röggla is an author who intervenes in political discourse with her literature, but in a different form than one would normally imagine. 8.VO guest lecture Präauer Teresa Präauer, author and painter

58 1st novel: For the ruler from overseas 2nd novel: Johnny and Jean 3rd novel: Oh Schimmi (latest) literary publication - One writes into nothing. (Compare message in a bottle: Is it found? Is the finder willing to open it? Is he willing to read it?) Inventing worlds and characters -> central role in your books Guidelines: Texts have clear boundaries, on the one hand limited choice of subjects (rulers overseas writing , Flying -> author, aviator, ornithologist). Motive restrictions as well as linguistic and formal limits -> corset! Literary studies view of texts (she studied literature) Function of the studies in relation to her works? -> did not want to become an author as a student. For them, lust and intellectuality are linked. Literature business must present and stage itself in the media public -> media world has changed significantly, affects the entire dissemination of images, changes in journalism etc. 9th Regulation - other spellings (Teresa Präauer For the ruler from overseas / 2012) (Monika Helfer Die Bar outdoors / 2012)

59 o Unexpected possibilities to represent verbally are demonstrated; o does not follow any causal logic of action -> it can be shaped differently, understood differently, set different contexts. o every form of linguistic construction is a specific frame / logic / association o it is not about depicting something; the idea of ​​a realism that one thinks can be reflected in the form of language is not the case. o Present tense as a narrative tense o Narration as a way of designing a way of seeing the world and using language.

60 o Figure: female aviator who flies over the landscape and thus has a specific view / perspective of the landscape. o Landscape over which the female aviator flies is a postcard. o A huge bright spot that covers everything = thumb that covers the postcard (alienation effect because the landscape described is the depiction / photography of the landscape; not an authentically perceived landscape; second level landscape) o Awareness of the artistic is already represented on the first page. o Characteristic of the novel: Strong visuality of the text; First 1 ½ pages: colors and graphic shapes are strongly represented (V-formation, bean-shaped; white, gray, red ..) o Other flights of the aviator: creative design; Poetological overture; o Other contexts: worked very clearly with language material o Material awareness / writing awareness o V -> phonetically written -> as a sound image (V as in Sieg, historical sign Victory; F as in bird and F as the birds fly -> formation of the birds that the aviator accompany)

61 o V is also a graphic character (easy to write, builds the way to W). Written form is made clear. o Coherence of the text through motifs and writing processes, not only through causal logic of action o Opposes perception and writing clichés (S 13) o Monika Helfer married to writer Michael Köhlmeier The bar in the open. Short stories from the improbability of the world, partly interconnected - literary tradition / points of reference: - calendar stories by Johann Peter Hebel - short prose by Franz Kafka - sober narrative style by Anton Chekhov - no frame structure - narrated space extends from the small-town Austrian world to Israel, Mozambique and Cuba Clear: The short ones are a role model Tales by Kafka (dream logic).

62 - large ensemble of figures that are designed and presented - but also the work with understatement

63