What are spectator ions in chemical reactions?
What are audience audiences?
Spectator ions are ions that are present in a solution but do not take part in the chemical reaction of a solution. When reactants dissociate into ions, some of the ions can combine to form a new compound. The other ions do not take part in this chemical reaction and are therefore referred to as spectator ions. You are in solution, but you are just "watching" how the other ions form new bonds to create the new material.
TL; DR (too long; not read)
Spectator ions dissociate in a solution but are not involved when a chemical reaction occurs. Instead, they stay dissolved in the solution. Other ions in the solution can react and form bonds to create a new bond, but the spectator ions are only observing. Typical spectator ions are the positive ions of the alkali metals in the first column of the periodic table and the halogens in the penultimate column.
Substances that act as spectator ions
Spectator ions come from ionic compounds that dissolve freely in water but do not react with it. If they remain in solution as individual ions and do not form new compounds, they are therefore considered to be Audiences known. The other ions from the dissolved compounds are those that take part in the chemical reactions and create new reaction products.
The alkali metals from the first column of the periodic table are a group of elements that provide audience audiences. Compounds with atoms like sodium and potassium are ionic compounds, the ions of which dissociate to Na in solution+ or K+ Ions. A second group of elements that form spectator ions are the halogen gases from the penultimate column of the periodic table. Atoms like chlorine and fluorine form negatively charged ions Cl- and F-. After their ionic compounds dissociate in solution, these ions remain in solution without participating in the resulting chemical reaction.
Examples of spectator ion reactions
When a solution of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is mixed with hydrochloric acid, HCl, the compounds dissociate into the ions Na+, OH-, H+ and Cl-. The hydrogen and hydroxide ions react to form water, but the sodium and chlorine ions remain unchanged in solution. They are spectators because they did not take part in the chemical reaction. When the water is removed, for example by evaporation, these two ions form the crystals of the ionic compound NaCl or table salt, but the ions themselves have not undergone any chemical changes.
Ions, which are spectator ions in a chemical reaction, can take part in a different reaction, depending on the materials brought into solution. For example, add silver nitrate, AgNO3, to the above solution of Na+ and Cl- Ions, silver chloride, AgCl, precipitate in the form of a white deposit. In this case, the chloride ion ceased to be a spectator ion and participated in the reaction to form a new compound, silver chloride. The sodium ion has remained a spectator ion and the nitrate ion is NO3-, is also a spectator.
While the spectator ions remain unchanged in solution and do not take part in the chemical reaction, they serve as a means of transport for the materials required for the reaction. To obtain silver chloride, the sodium ion releases the chlorine ion, while the nitrate ion brings the silver ion into the reaction. Audiences bring in the participants for the chemical reaction, but then do not take part themselves.
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