Has Korean gender-specific pronouns

List of languages ​​by type of grammatical genders - List of languages ​​by type of grammatical genders

This article lists languages ​​according to their grammatical gender usage.

No grammatical gender

Certain language families, such as the Austronesian, Turkish, and Uralic language families, do not usually have grammatical genders (see genderless language).

Nomenclature Classifiers

Some languages ​​without a noun class may have noun classifiers instead. This is common in East Asian languages.

Male and female

  • Albanian - the neuter has almost disappeared.
  • Akkadian
  • Ancient Egyptian
  • Amharic
  • Arabic (many modern variants have merged the feminine and masculine plural pronouns, adjectives and verb conjugations into a common plural)
  • Aramaic
  • Breton (brythonian)
  • Catalan - although it has the pronoun "ho" which replaces antecedents without gender, such as a subordinate clause or a neutral demonstrative ("això", "allò"). For example: "vol això" (he wants that) → "ho vol" (he wants it) or "ha promès que vindrà" (he has promised that he will come) → "ho ha promès" (he has promised it ).
  • Coptic
  • Cornish (Brythonic)
  • Corsican
  • French
  • Friulan
  • Galician (with some remnants of neuter in the demonstratives isto (This right here), iso (this there / this) and aquilo (that there), which can also be pronouns)
  • Gujarati language
  • Hebrew
  • Hindi
  • Irish (Goidelic)
  • Italian - there is a trace of the neuter in some nouns and pronouns. For example: singular l'uovo , il dito ; Plural le uova , le dita ("the egg (s)", "the finger"), although singular of the type dito and uovo and their shape conforms to the male grammatical gender and the plural forms correspond to the female grammatical morphology.
  • Kashmiri
  • Kurdish (only Nordic dialect and only in singular nouns and pronouns, not in plural and not in adjectives or verbs; central or southern dialects have lost their grammatical gender as a whole)
  • Ladin
  • Latvian
  • Lithuanian - there is one neutral Gender for all declinable parts of speech (most adjectives, pronouns, digits, participles), with the exception of nouns, but there are very few forms.
  • Maltese
  • Manx (Goidelic)
  • Occitan
  • Oromo language
  • Pashto - the neuter has almost disappeared.
  • Portuguese - there is a trace of that neuter in the demonstratives (isto / isso / aquilo) and some indefinite pronouns.
  • Punjabi (see also Punjabi dialects)
  • Romani
  • Sardinian
  • Scottish Gaelic (Goidelic)
  • Sicilian
  • Spanish - there is a kind neuter although it generally only applies to the specific article lo used with adjectives denoting abstract categories: lo bueno or when on an unknown object eso Is referred to.
  • Tamazight (Berber)
  • Urdu (Lashkari)
  • Venetian
  • Welsh (Brythonic)
  • Zazaki

Mean and neutral

In these languages, lively nouns have predominantly a common gender, while inanimate nouns can have either gender.

  • Danish (Danish has four gender-specific pronouns, but only two grammatical genders in terms of noun classes.)
  • Dutch (Das Male and the Female have become one in standard Dutch common sex united , but some still distinguish between the use of pronouns and South Dutch varieties. See gender in Dutch grammar.)
  • Filipino
  • (West) Frisian
  • Hittites (The Hittite "common" gender includes nouns that are either masculine or feminine in other Indo-European languages, while the "neutral" gender continues the inherited Indo-European neutral gender.)
  • Norwegian (In the Bergen dialect and in some sociolects of Oslo.)
  • Swedish (The distinction between male and Female still exists for humans and some animals. Some dialects retain all three genders for all nouns. (Swedish has four gender-specific pronouns, but only two grammatical genders in terms of noun classes.)

Animate and inanimate

In many such languages, what is commonly referred to as "animation" can in fact be more accurately described as the distinction between human and non-human, rational and irrational, "socially active" and "socially passive", and so on.

Male, female and neutral

  • Asturian - masculine, feminine, and neutral for a myriad of nouns.
  • Belarusian
  • Bulgarian *
  • Czech *
  • Dutch - that Male and the Female have become one in standard Dutch common sex united but many still distinguish when using pronouns. In the South Dutch (Flemish) spoken language, all articles, possessives and demonstratives differentiate between male and female: see gender in Dutch grammar.
  • Faroe Islands
  • Gallic
  • German
  • Greek - In the Attic dialect of Ancient Greek, verbal neuter plural forms are treated like singulars.
  • Gujarati
  • Icelandic
  • Kannada
  • Ket
  • Latin
  • Limburgish
  • Low German
  • Luxembourgish
  • Macedonian
  • Marathi
  • Norwegian - the three-gender system is widespread across the country, except in the Bergen dialect (also absent from some sociolects in Oslo), where the dialect allows female nouns to have the corresponding masculine inflections or to disregard the feminine gender use at all.
  • Old English
  • Old Irish
  • Old Persian
  • Old Prussian
  • Pennsylvania German
  • Polish *
  • Romanian - the neutral gender (in Romanian neutru or sometimes called ambigenous ) has no forms of its own; Neutral nouns behave like masculine nouns in the singular and feminine in the plural. This behavior is seen in terms of matching adjectives and replacing pronouns. See Romanian nouns.
  • Russian *
  • Sanskrit
  • Serbo-Croatian *
  • Slovak *
  • Slovenian *
  • Sorbian
  • Swedish - just like in Dutch Male and the Female to a common sex merged in standard Swedish. But many dialects, mainly in Dalecarlia, Ostrobothnia (Finland) and northern Sweden, have preserved three genders in the spoken language.
  • Telugu
  • Ukrainian *
  • Yiddish

Note: In Slavic languages ​​marked with an asterisk (*) are traditionally only male , female and neutral Gender recognized, with the animation applies as a separate category for male and female (in East Slavic languages) or only for male (elsewhere). The actual situation is similar to that in the Czech Republic.

More than three grammatical genders

  • Burushaski: masculine, feminine, animals / countable nouns and inanimate / innumerable nouns / abstracts / liquids
  • Chechen: 6 classes (male, female and 4 other different classes)
  • Czech and Slovak: Male animated , Male inanimate , Female , neuter (Traditionally only male, female and neutral genders are recognized, with animation being a separate category for the masculine).
  • Polish: Male personally , Masculine busier , lifeless masculine , Feminine , neuter (traditionally, only male, female and neuter genders recognized).
  • Pama Nyungan languages, including Dyirbal and other Australian languages, have gender systems such as: Male , Female (please refer Women, fire and dangerous things ), vegetable and neutral . (Some linguists do not consider this language's nomenclature class system to be a grammatical gender.)
    • Many Australian languages ​​have a superclass of the sexes where belonging to one gender can mean belonging to another gender.
  • Kannada: Originally had 9 gender pronouns, but currently only 3 exist.
  • Zande: Male , Female , animates and inanimate .
  • Bantu languages ​​have many noun classes.
    • Rwanda-Rundi language family (including Kinyarnwanda, Kirundi, and Ha): 16 classes of nouns grouped in 10 pairs.
    • Ganda: Ten classes that are simply called Class I. to Class X are designated and contain all kinds of arbitrary groupings, but often as People , long objects , Animals , different objects , large objects and liquids , small objects , languages , Pejorative , Infinitives , Mass nouns be characterized
    • Shona: 20 noun classes (singular and plural are considered separate classes)
    • Swahili: 18 classes of nouns (singular and plural are considered separate classes)
  • Tuyuca: Tuyuca has 50–140 nomenclature classes.
  • Sepik languages: Sepik languages ​​all differentiate between at least male and female genders, but some distinguish three or more genders.

References