Follow the rules of Jainism

The vows for tirthankars:



Jainism is the earliest religion in the universe. The word Jina literally means one who has overcome (inner passions) such as desire and hatred. Jainism is so named because it is preached by Jina. In the past, this religion was also known as the Nirgrantha religion, a religion from which one has been freed from all ties.


A Jina is mentioned variously by the Jains as Arhat, Arhant, Arihant, Tirthankara, etc. Of these, the word Tirthankara has a special meaning. It says someone who is the founder of the four-fold arrangement of monks, nuns and lay people - male as well as female. A tirthankara is his supreme lawgiver.


Of the 24 Tirthankars who were born in this consecrated land of India, Rishab was the first. Not only was he the first tirthankara to preach religion, he was the first sovereign monarch of domination and taught people about household duties. Of the many things he taught, perhaps it should be mentioned the ways of threshing grain, cooking, and making earthenware pots. Rishab after he had lived worldly renounced the world and took penance and sermon for many years. He was the first of the Tirthankara, also known as Adinath or Adideva, first among the Tirthankaras, Mahaveer was the last Tirthankara.



As already mentioned, a Tirthankara is the founder of the fourfold arrangement of monks, nuns and lay people - male as well as female. Of these four, the sadhus or the monks are held in the highest awe. They live a hard and stressful life after giving up. They observe the five great vows of the Mahavratas. These are ahimsa (not to be killed). Satya (not to lie), Achauryya (not to steal), Brahmmacharya (to abstain from sexual relations) and Aparigraha (to renounce all interests in worldly matters) these vows are to be meticulously observed by the monks in speech, in thought and in deeds until their death. You should be kind, even in your thoughts against all living beings. Himsa includes not only killing but also torturing or forcing a living creature to act against its will. Not only do monks observe this form of ahimsa itself, but they also do not advise anyone to do such acts that cause death or injury to any living organism, nor do they approve of such acts when others do them. This is the first great vow and is known as Ahimsa or Pranatipata Viramana.


Not to lie is the second great vow known as Satya or Mrishavad Viramana. Monks should always keep silent about what is true in the event that an uttered truth causes suffering or death to a living being, and anger, greed, fear and jest are the brood cells of falsehood, monks should not bring forth any of these. This vow is also to be fully observed by them in speech, thoughts and deeds. You yourself should not express what is not true or approve it.


The third great vow is Achauryya or abstention of theft. This is known as Adattadana Viramana. Monks are required to fully observe this vow so that they not only refrain from appropriating things that are not given to them in villages or towns, but also refrain from picking wild fruits in the forests. They do not appropriate themselves or ask someone else to appropriate or approve of it. In addition, they are also advised to remain vigilant that they may not take more than what they absolutely need. Taking more than necessary is also theft.


The fourth great vow is Brahmmacharyya or Maithuna Viramana Abstention from sexual relations Monks are required to strictly and fully observe this vow. They themselves do not want to have sexual pleasures or ask others to do the same or approve of it. If you have had any experience of pleasure in your past home life, do not want to think about it now and heed this vow to the letter. Since this vow is very difficult to keep, you are advised not to sit on a pillow or bed that a woman uses, nor to take tasty dishes that awaken your passion and observe such other regulations. You have to live a tough life.


The fifth great vow is Aparigraha Viraman waiver of all interest in worldly things. Monks are advised not to have any affection for any wealth, property, grain, or house whatever it may be. You yourself should not hold such things, nor ask others to hold, nor approve of them. By giving up all affection for the objects of sound, sight, smell, taste and touch, in all ways and by all means, they observe this vow.


Other virtues:


Along with the five great vows mentioned above, monks strive for ten-fold virtues of a yati or a self-controlled ascetic namely: Kshama (forgiveness), Mardaba

(Humanity), Arjaba (righteousness), Nirlobhata (non-desirability), Akinchanata (poverty), Satya (truthfulness), Sanyama (self-renunciation), Tapasya (restriction), Soucha

(Purity) and Brahmmacharyya (Chastity). You are constantly required to produce equanimity towards all beings, friends and enemies alike. They don't take food at night (euphemistic for stealing).

They live on alms and do not use any form of transport to move from one place to another. They do not hold or accept money even when offered. They have no property or belongings.


Regulations for the control of mental life:


How monks continually have to control the violent desires of their mind and flesh, sometimes expressed in words, with reference to the control of one's soul life, three guptis or regulations are described. The first is Mana Gupti or regulation by which mind must be controlled. If at any time improper or evil desires arise in the mind, you must control them by shutting out the evil thought and making way for a pure one. The second is gupti Bhasagupti or regulation of language. It boils down to observing complete silence yourself. The third is Kaya Gupti or regulating one's physical actions. Along with these guptis, monks also have five Samitis to be observed. These samitis are: Iriya samitis or regulation of walking, Bhasa Samiti or regulation of speech, esana samiti or regulation of begging, Adana-nikshepa Samiti or regulation of taking or keeping anything and utsarga samiti or regulation of anything. Maintain strict vigilance so that they do not like to kill or injure any creature while moving iriya samiti. To be reluctant to speak and to speak the truth that is beneficial bhasa samiti. Asking for food that is pure, harmless and necessary for the maintenance of the body esana samiti. To give care while receiving and holding anything is adananikshepa samiti. And being careful about throwing away unnecessary things is utsarga samiti


For pure thoughts:


To make room for pure thoughts and to cast out evil, monks have to think, these thoughts are twelve in number: Antiya bhavana or thoughts about the impermanence of life, youth, wealth and property. This will help a monk break all worldly affections. Asarana bhavana or thoughts of helplessness against illness and death. This will encourage him to make an effort to cease it by eliminating his karma. Sansara bhavana or thoughts about the threadbare nature of our relationships. In fact, there are no worldly relationships such as father, mother, friend or enemy, etc. It is we who establish these relationships and live accordingly and are trapped. That is the nature of this world. So he will cease to have any affection for anyone or anything whatsoever. Ekatwa bhavana or thoughts like, "I was born alone" and "I suffer alone for the things I do or have done". Such thoughts will stimulate his efforts to get rid of karma on his own initiative. Anyatwa bhavana or thoughts about the relationship of the body and soul. These are not one. This body is matter while the soul is All-Consciousness. He should not mistake one for the other, and allow himself to be controlled by the urge of the flesh. Asuchi bhavana or thoughts about the constituent elements of his body. It is made of unclean things like blood, flesh, etc. so he shouldn't attach too much importance to his body.


Ashrava bhavana or thoughts about karma pouring into the soul.

Every time he enjoys the pleasure of the senses, he increases his karma. These thoughts will make him more cautious and he will try to stop the influx of him.

Sambara bhavana or thoughts to stop bad thoughts and make way for good ones. Nirjara bhavana or thoughts about the bad consequences of karma and an effort to destroy the previously acquired karma through restriction and meditation. Loka bhavana or thoughts about the real nature of this universe. Judging from the standpoint of essence, it is eternal but from the standpoint of change it is ephemeral. Hence all objects in the world come into existence and disappear. These kinds of thoughts make him understand the true nature of things, which is so important to proper knowledge. Bodhidurlabha bhavana or thoughts that right seeing and right behavior are difficult to acquire in this world. This will increase his effort to obtain it and live accordingly.


Dharma bhavana or thoughts that religion is the only island on which to rest, and excellent shelter in this world full of anguish. All other things lead to misery and suffering.


There are other rules of conduct for the monks such as going through twenty-two hardships such as hunger, thirst, cold, heat, etc. (list ...!)


The sadhvis or nuns observe the same strict vows and rules of conduct as the monks. It is these monks and nuns who exercise self-control and become spiritual teachers, giving up all desires and worldly possessions.


Male lay followers of the trail are known as Shravakas and female lay followers as Shravikas. They are not required to renounce the world but are expected to give up household chores through honest intentions and a progressive, pure life. You have generous, calm, calm, sincere, amiable, non-partisan appreciating good qualities, humble to others, appreciative, and doing good to others. Twelve types of rules and behavior are described for them.


Sthula pranatipata viramana or the vow not to intentionally harm a harmless creature. Sthula mrishabada viramana or the vow not uttering a lie that hurts or hurts others. Refusing to trust, giving false testimony in court, handing property other than your own or someone else's property may be viewed as a breach of that vow.


Sthula adattadana viramana or the vow not to steal. Theft of one's belongings or evasion of due taxes as a source of income are examples of the above.

Sthula maithuna viramana or vows not to enjoy sexual pleasures with any woman except his own wife. Even with her, someone has to enjoy with restraint.

Parigraha parimana or the vow of ownership including wealth, grain and animals, not exceeding a certain limit which one sets for oneself. He is encouraged not to accumulate unlimited wealth.

Dik parimana or the vow to limit the sphere within which one is free to move about for trade or other matters.

Bhogapabhoga parimana or the vow to limit the things that are needed by someone like food, clothes, etc. Things like food, flowers, ointments. Which can only be used once are bhogya and things like houses, clothes which can be used repeatedly are upabhogya.

Anarthadanda viramana or the vow of not indulging in sinful acts, not needed for one's own or the family's maintenance. Giving weapons and poison, inciting birds or animals to fight, giving advice to others regarding sinful acts, harboring bad thoughts in one's head and giving in to alcoholic and emotional intoxication are breaches of this vow. Hence this vow is of great practical importance.


Samayika or the vow the samayika kriya exercise. It consists of sitting down in one place for at least forty-eight minutes focusing one's mind on religious activities such as reading holy books, praying, or meditating. For the duration from this time on, vow to cherish and cause: evil thoughts, words and deeds and consequently becomes equivocal against all beings and thus almost reaches the standard morality of a monk.

Desabakasika or to set new boundaries on the vow each day within the limits already set by the sixth and seventh vows in accordance with one's daily needs.

Pausadha or the vow to live the life of a monk for a day. Consists of fasting and giving up all worldly activities for a day or for a day and night combined. For the duration of that time someone focuses on religious acts. It is called pasadha because it promotes and nourishes one's religious life.

Ultimately Atithi sambibhaga or the vow to serve monks and nuns to serve a worthy person or poor by food and clothing, etc., and to help them when required to the best of one's ability.


Of these twelve vows, the first are five Anuvratas, a bit easier compared to the Mahavrataswhich are especially intended for the monks, from the sixth to the eighth, they are gunavratas so called because they ennoble the guna or are deserved from the previous five anuvratas. The remaining four will be sikshavratas called.

Sikshavratas are preparation to enter the ascetic life of a monk. By practicing these twelve vows, a lay devotee may live a righteous life and advance toward a fuller and more perfect life.


The goal of Jainism is to achieve the liberation of the soul by releasing the soul from the bonds of karma. But until someone knows what soul is, what karma is, what the characteristics of the soul are, how it is forced by the incoming karma to cross the cycles of life and death and suffering and the way out of these cycles through grueling karma, how can one free one's own self? To know all of this one has to know the building blocks of the universe, its relationships, why and how the soul is in chains and the ways and means to become free again. This knowledge is embodied in the Nava Tattwa or Nine Principles. These are

Jiva (soul),

Ajiva (non-living substances),

Ashrava, (inflow of karma),

bandha (shackles of karma),

Punya (virtue),

Paap (sin),

sambara (stopping the inflow of karma),

Nirjara (exhaustion of karma), and

Moksha (liberation).

But in reality the principles of Ajiva and Jiva embrace the whole world. The other seven principles simply explain how the soul is defined in coming into contact with karma and ways and means of getting free from it.


Jiva principle:


The first principle of Jiva. The main characteristic of Jiva is chetana (consciousness). Other characteristics of Jiva are unrestricted knowledge, vision and bliss. Jivas have separate lives and they are unlimited in number. Jivas are of two types: mukta (free) and sansari (secular). Those who have attained nirvana by breaking the bonds of karma and transitioning to rebirth are free. They are also known as siddhas (impeccable) and are endowed with unlimited knowledge, vision and bliss. The worldly souls are embodied souls of those who are subject to the cycles of life and death and have not yet attained final liberation. They are born as Devas (gods), Manavas (people), Narakas (beings of Hell) and Tiryakas (birds, animals, insects, plants, etc.), and when the hourglass of their life runs out, they die and are born again.


Jivas are, again, divided according to the number of sense organs they have. The highest are those which have five senses: touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing. The lowest have only one meaning: touch.Since jivas cannot move with a sense organ (ekendriya), they become sthavaras (beings free of the ability to move), sthavara - beings are divided into five classes: prithwi kayas or jivas of the earth-body, apkayas or jivas of the water-body, agnikayas or jivas of the fire-body, vayukayas or jivas of the air-body, and vanaspatikayas or jivas of the tree-body. Earth and stone, every kind of water, every kind of fire, every kind of air, and every kind of trees are full of jivas of the earth-water-fire-air-tree bodies. The beings with two to five sense organs can move and are known as trasa jivas dwindriya beings

the sense organs possess touch and taste (worms, leeches, etc.). Trindriya beings possess the sense organ of smell along with the above two organs (ants, lice, etc.). Chaturindriya jivas possess the sense organ of hearing along with the above. In this class we like to mention human beings, animals, birds, gods, and beings of hell. According to the Jain scriptures, there are seven hells. Those who commit massive sins go to hell after their death and experience unimaginable sufferings. Those who do meritorious work go to heaven and enjoy boundless joys. There are twelve heavens alongside the abodes of lesser gods and vimanas of the higher gods. Beings with one to four sense organs have no mind and are known as Amanaska. Beings with five sense organs have minds and are known as Samanaska, but there is a big difference in the development of their minds.


Principle of Ajiva:


The second principle is Ajiva. In one point of view it is fundamentally different from that of the jiva, that is, it is unconscious. There are five beings of Ajiva: Dharma, Adharma, Akasa, Pudgala and kaala. These five beings like Jiva are immortal.


Principle of Dharma


Dharma is the principle of movement. If this principle of movement never existed, it would not have been possible for a jiva or pudgala to move. Dharma is not physical, devoid of all sense qualities and pervades the whole loka. Loka is that quantum of the universe where Jiva and Ajiva can exist. Beyond this loka, aloka or cleared out is empty. In Aloka, since there is no principle of movement there, nobody can walk.


Principle of Adharma:


Adharma is the principle of rest. It helps a moving jiva or pudgala to stop when it desires to stop. Adharma is also not physical, devoid of all sensory qualities and pervades the whole loka.


Akasha is space. There is room for Jiva and Pudgala to exist. This pervades Loka and Aloka and is non-physical and devoid of all sense qualities.


Atom (Paramanu) or any combination of atoms is called a pudgala. Atom is the smallest indivisible particle from which the whole material world is composed. The material objects are endless in number, shape, taste, smell, touch, tone and are the characteristics of that pudgala or material substance. But the atoms cannot be perceived by our sense organs; they also have the qualities of shape, taste, smell, touch and sound.


According to a point of view, kala or time is an invisible thing, it has no real existence. Relative time is

determined by changes or movements of things. The smallest independent set of this relative time is samaya and connections of such tiny little samayas are classified differently as moment, month, year, etc. According to another view, time, too, has a real existence and consists of innumerable time atoms (kalanus). Time comes like a mediation in the alternation of jiva and pudgala. It is also not physical and devoid of sensory qualities.


Principle Ashrava:


The third principle is Ashrava. The causes that lead to the influence of good and bad karma on binding the soul are called ashrava. In brief, ashrava can be described as attraction in the jiva to sense objects.

Mithyawata (ignorance),

abirati (lack of self-control)

kasaya (passions such as anger, vanity, delusion and desire),

pramada (carelessness) and

yoga (actions of mind, language and body)

are the five causes of the influx of good and bad karma and are therefore known as Ashrava. As Himsa, falsehood, stealing, sex, forbearance, and affection for worldly objects are causes of the influx of karma, they may also be viewed as Ashrava.


Principle of Bandha:


The fourth principle is Bandha. Bandha is the affection of the karma pudgala for the soul. Karma Pudgala is a special kind of Pudgala which, attracted by ignorance or by the action of the body, mind and language and by its action on attraction and repulsion, attaches itself to the soul and envelops it. In its fundamental nature, the soul is pure, transparent, conscious and non-physical. Therefore, logically, it cannot be bound by physical and unconscious pudgala. But still from eternity, it has received this fetter in the form of Karma Pudgal. In Jain philosophy, this karmic body is known as karmana sarira. Just as the Jiva has been enveloped in this karmana sarira for ages, various kinds of impulses and reactions flowed from it. Attracted by these impulses and reactions, new karma pudgalas is continually flowing in and attaching itself to the karamana sarira the jiva has to go through the cycles of birth and death, feeling pleasure and pain.


Karmic matter attaching itself to the soul takes four forms. These are: prakritti bandha, sthiti banda anubhnva bandha and pradesha bandha.


When karma pudgala attaches itself to the soul, it will obscure or in various ways weaken the original properties of the jiva. This is called prakritti bandha. Prakritti bandhas are arranged under eight heads according to the individual quality of the soul which it obscures:


Jnanabaraniya or that which covers the soul's power of unlimited knowledge,

dharshanabaraniya or that which obscures his power of unlimited vision,

vedaniya, or that which obscures the blissful nature of the soul while producing pleasure and suffering,

mohaniya or that which develops delusion in the jiva in relation to its own true nature and makes it an identity with the non-self,

aayu that which determines the length of life in one's birth, this obscuring his nature of eternal existence. Naama or that which obscures the non-physical existence of the soul and creates the body with its limitations and virtues, abilities, etc.

gotra or that which obscures its character of equanimity and determines the caste, family or social class and

antaraya or that which blocks the soul's natural energy and prevents it from gaining liberation. It also prevents a living being from doing something good and enjoyable


When Karma Pudgala gets stuck on the soul, the duration of attachment is determined at that time according to the intensity or stupidity of the Jiva’s passions. This kind of affection is called sthiti bandha.


When the karma pudgala will produce fruit is determined at the time of attachment by the various degrees of the influences of the passions. The attachment that is pregnant with the power to produce such fruits is called anubhava bandha or rasa bandha.

The amount of karma pudgala drawn against the jiva in order to attach it to it is determined by the intensity or stupidity of the jiva act. This kind of affection of varying degrees is called pradesha bandha.


Principle Punya:


The fifth principle is Punya. Punya is nothing but the inflow of karma pudgala due to the good actions of the mind, body and speech with the inner power to produce pleasing sensations and good consequences. Such karma pudgalas can be acquired by giving food, drinking, shelter, bedding and clothing, or purifying through mind, or by paying homage to the commandments. Physical and mental happiness, health, graceful body, wealth, property and fame are the results of good karma.


Principle dad:


The sixth principle is father. It is just the opposite of Punya. Papa is the inflow of karma pudgala due to the evil actions of the mind, body and speech with the inner power to produce unpleasant sensations and bad consequences. Such karma pudgalas can be acquired through himsa, falsehood, theft, unchastity and affection for objects, and anger, conceit, delusion and lust. It is not possible for the soul smeared with bad karma pudgala to free itself. She is compelled to wander eternally in the cycle of births and deaths, acquiring new bonds of bondage. Diseases, ugliness of form, inferior

animal births, or birth in hell, poverty are the results of evil karma.


As Papa and Punya are the different outcomes of the Fourth Principle, some exponents of Jain philosophy do not treat them as separate principles and according to which their main principles are only seven instead of nine.


Principle Samvara:


The seventh principle is Samvara. The method that stops fresh currents of karma from flowing into the soul is Samvara. It is just the opposite of Ashrava. It can be accomplished through continued training of mind, speech, and body through religious meditation, conquering desire, forgiveness, tenderness, purity, truth, limitation, renunciation, independence, chastity, abstaining from evil deeds and greed, and thinking about the transience of the world, of life and youth, etc.


Principle Nirjara:


The eighth principle is Nirjara. Nirjara is the erosion of the karma pudgala that has already been acquired. All karma wears itself out by giving its consequences when it is time for it to bear fruit. But until they are worn out before they are ripe to give results, it becomes difficult to become free because at that time new karma pudgala begins to pour in. Therefore, it becomes necessary for someone eager for ultimate liberation to rub it off themselves before it is time. Nirjara has to be carried out by strict restriction.

Restrictions are of two types: external and internal. Outward restrictions are anasana (complete abstinence from all kinds of food), alpahara (reduction of one's food), icchanirodha (renunciation of milk, butter, meat, honey, alcohol, etc.), kayaklesha (humiliation of one's body) and sanlinata (an a lonely place to sit, contracting one's body and withdrawing one's senses).

Inner restrictions are prayaschitta (atonement for transgressions), vinaya (appropriate behavior to the commandments), vaiavritya (selfless service to the sick and the deserving), swadhyaya (meditation on the treatise), byutsarga (non-attachment to the body) and subhadhyana ( religious meditation).


Principle Moksha:


The ninth or last principle is Moksha. Moksha is the liberation of the soul after the complete eradication or elimination of all karmas. A liberated soul regains its original properties of unlimited knowledge, strength, and happiness and ascends to the summit of the Loka and remains there immersed in the unspecified bliss of its unconditional existence. It never returns to the cycle of life and death. This status of the soul is the liberated or perfect status and that is nirvana. Like a lamp lit in a house, the whole house is irradiated with its light and when other lamps are lit their light mixes with one another and stays there, so the liberated souls, each of which is a shine, mix with one another and remain at the top of the Loka for always.




So now for the path to this moksha of ultimate liberation. It is threefold: Samyak Darshana (right seeing), Samyak gyan (right knowing), and Samyak charitrya (right behavior). A simultaneous practice of these three leads to liberation. It is for this reason that these three Excellencies are metaphorically called the Triratna (three jewels).


Samyak darshana is samyakatwa. It consists in seeing the real nature of real things. Generally, people deceived by ignorance take falsehood for truth and truth for falsehood. Samyakatwa is exactly the opposite of that - recognizing truth as truth and falsehood as falsehood. And truly speaking, if one can see truth from falsehood, it can be said that he is on the path of realization because then and only then can he give up, know what to know and embrace what to hug. This is the status of right seeing.


It is recognized that every jiva has some kind of knowledge. But until one attains the status of right seeing, it cannot be said that he has right knowing. That is how long his knowledge is incomplete and wrong. This is ajnana or mithyajnana. This is because this status cannot be said to have correct knowledge. It can only be obtained after attaining the right seeing status.


Now there are five kinds of knowledge: mati, struti, avdhi, manaparyaya, and kevala. Mati is ordinary knowledge acquired through normal means of the sense organs and reason. Sruta is derived through signs, symbols, or words. Struti knowledge like Mati is also acquired through the means of the senses and intellect and this knowledge of a thing cannot be possessed until Mati has already been knowledge. But it still has a broader scope than Mati, for Sruta's knowledge includes a study of words and their meanings. To know by hearing the wise men and reading the scriptures is Sruta knowledge. Avadhi is direct knowledge of physical things without the means of senses and reason within a boundary of space and time. It is a kind of spiritual knowledge or extra sensory perception. One who has this knowledge can see, even with his eyes closed, all things which are not formless within a certain limit of space and time without the means of the senses and reason. This is also a kind of spiritual knowledge. Kevala is the knowledge which, completely without the aid of the senses and mind, reveals the truth of all things physical or non-physical, with all its characteristics and changes, past, present and future, of the whole universe. This is first class spiritual knowledge. Kevala knowledge is the natural status of jiva and it begins when the four types of karma -jnanabaraniya, darshanabaraniya, antaraya and mohaniya are completely wiped out. Once this status is realized, it becomes certain that the jiva will attain ultimate liberation when the remaining life span comes to an automatic end. The tirthankaras are such persons possessing kevalajnana omniscient and omniscient.


Domination, renunciation, control of the senses and purity in action are charitra or behavior. Exercising this behavior after gaining right seeing and right knowing constitutes right behavior. Five great vows, tooth daddy dharmas, seventeen forms of self-control for the monks and twelve vratas for the lay follower are included in right conduct. Behavior is of two types, sarba tyaga (total renunciation) and desh or ansha tyaga (partial renunciation), total renunciation is for the monks and partial renunciation is for the lay followers.


Giving up himsa, falsehood, stealing, sex-indulgence and craving for possession, giving up attachments to five kinds of sense objects - object of sound, sight, smell, taste and touch, controlling four kasayas - anger, conceit, deceit and lust and contain evil tendencies of mind, speech, and body are seventeen types of behavior. Someone who strives for right seeing, right knowing and right behavior with their perfection is sure to attain liberation.


Right seeing, right knowing and right behavior are interdependent, e.g. until seeing becomes perfect, knowledge cannot be perfect. Again, until seeing and knowing become perfect, behavior cannot be perfect. Re-possession of one or two of these jewels of the Triratna does not mean liberation. Someone may have right seeing and right knowledge, but they are fruitless until they are complemented by right behavior. Liberation is only achieved through attaining all of these three. In Jainism, much care has been taken on the purity of the plot because it is the most difficult of all due temptations of the sense objects of sound, sight, smell, taste and touch. Until one follows strictly the five great vows of ahimsa, truthfulness, non-stealing, chastity, and non-possession, it will not be possible to have right conduct. The ideal of a monk as maintained in the Jain scriptures is the ideal of this right conduct of which Ahimsa is the centerpiece.


The rules of conduct for the monks have been woven around this centerpiece. Until one practices truthfulness, non-stealing, chastity, and non-possession, it becomes practically impossible for him to keep the vow of ahimsa. Therefore, the other four are included in the list of five great vows. Again, until one has mastered his mind and senses, he cannot keep the vow of ahimsa. On the other hand, mastery becomes difficult until someone practices restrictions, in Jain literature it is said to be Dharma. Monks are required to be careful in every act at all times so that they do not kill, hurt or injure a living being, however small it may be. This requires the fulfillment of the five great vows mentioned above. Monks do not suffer the torture imposed on them wavering and with courage and equanimity, even at the time of death. Even so, they do not get angry or seek retribution for the trial inflicted upon them.


Vratas of lay followers have already been mentioned. They are worded so that, if followed, lay followers may learn to live the good life and overcome desire.

While earning gold or amassing it, while taking up arms to protect himself, his family or his country from an intruder, he is taught self-control, restraint from abundance and such, on the one hand he is excluded from himself, his family or his country or He is preparing himself for the life of a monk to even inflict some kind of suffering on humanity through reckless behavior and, on the other hand, by gradually giving up attachment. If one goes deeper into the rules laid down, one will find that the practice of limiting the number of things to keep to oneself or enjoy them eliminates the danger of concentrating wealth in one fell swoop. Unable to earn more than what is prescribed for himself, he is expected to spend the whole thing and this for the benefit of society as a whole. It is natural that as a good student, he will not pass it off for wrong intentions. Such limiting of the desires of individuals, restraint, is immeasurably good for society and maintains a perfect order of things. When this principle is resurrected and reinstated in its original purity in the life of individuals, society and the state by driving out death, destruction and bloodthirstiness.


In German by ΑΏ [2009 a.D.]