How can pistons be made from alloys?

DE4404420A1 - Aluminum Alloy, Aluminum Alloy Pistons, and Use of Aluminum Alloy - Google Patents

Aluminum alloy, aluminum alloy piston and use of aluminum alloy


Publication number
DE4404420A1DE19944404420DE4404420ADE4404420A1DE 4404420 A1DE4404420 A1DE 4404420A1DE 19944404420 DE19944404420 DE 19944404420DE 4404420 ADE4404420 ADE 4404420ADE 4404420 A1DE4404420 A1DE 4404420A1
Prior art keywords
aluminum alloy
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DE4404420C2 (de
Lothar Hofmann
Klaus Lades
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Federal Mogul Nuernberg GmbH
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Alcan Germany GmbH
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    • C22C-ALLOYS
    • C22C21 / 00 — Alloys based on aluminum
    • C22C21 / 02 — Alloys based on aluminum with silicon as the next major constituent


This invention relates to an aluminum alloy, more precisely an aluminum-silicon alloy, a piston made of such an alloy and particularly advantageous uses of this aluminum alloy, in particular for components that are used at elevated temperatures and are mechanically highly stressed.
Various aluminum-silicon alloys are known, these being classified into eutectic, hypereutectic or hypoeutectic alloys depending on the silicon content. Many of these known alloys are suitable as alloys for pistons. For example, aluminum key, W. Hufnagel, Hrsgb. Alumi nium-Zentrale, Aluminum-Verlag, 1st edition, 1981, p. 85 an aluminum alloy known, comprising 8.5 to 10.5 wt .-% Si, 2.0 to 4.0 wt .-% Cu, 0 , 5 to 1.5 wt% Mg, less than 1.2 wt% Fe, less than 0.5 wt% Mn, less than 0.5 wt% Ni, less than 1.0 % By weight of Zn, less than 0.25% by weight of Ti, less than a total of 0.5% by weight of other elements, the remainder being aluminum. Although a piston made from this alloy has good mechanical strength, it is not sufficient at high temperatures.
From DE-OS-19 32 537 aluminum alloys are known whose silicon content is in the range of 8.5 to 10.5 wt .-%. In addition, this alloy has low proportions of the elements Cu, Ni and Mn, which means that this alloy does not have sufficient mechanical strength, especially at elevated temperatures.
From DE-OS 38 23 476 an aluminum alloy is be known that can be used for pistons. A concrete example of such an alloy comprises 9 wt .-% Si, 3.5 wt .-% Cu, 1.0 wt .-% Mg, 0.15 wt .-% Ti + B and 1.8 wt .-% % Ni. Even a piston made from this alloy is not sufficient for the high mechanical and thermal loads in today's high-performance engines.
In Everling-Müller-Richter, Leichtmetallkolben, VEB Verlag Technik Berlin 1953, table 2c after p. 40, the composition of the piston alloy "Nüral 3210a" is given. The Si content is between 9 and 11% by weight; Cu and Ni are used in amounts of 2 to 2.8 and 0.2 to 0.4 wt%, respectively. This alloy also does not have sufficient mechanical strength at higher temperatures.
DE-OS 4 103 934 describes an aluminum alloy suitable for pistons which contains at least 9.0% by weight Si, 3.0 to 7.0% by weight Ni, 1.5 to 6.0% by weight Cu and contains at least one element from the group consisting of Mg, Mn, V, Sc, Fe, Ti, Sr, Zn, B and Cr, the remainder being aluminum and impurities. It is particularly preferred if this alloy contains a maximum of 0.8% by weight of Mg. Although the very high content of Ni leads to good mechanical strength, this makes the cost of this alloy very high.
Among the near-eutectic alloys, for example, the alloy A-S12u4NZr is known (see Metals and Materials, 1972, pp. 211-216; R.F. Smart and J.A. Reynolds, Aluminum in Automotive Piston Materials). This alloy has silicon in a proportion of 11.0 to 13.5% by weight. This alloy also contains 0.9 to 1.6% Mg; 3.5 to 4.5% Cu and 1.1 to 1.7% Ni are relatively large amounts of Fe and Mn. The presence of Mn in relatively high contents is necessary here because the Fe content is relatively high. This is because with a high Fe content, long needles are formed which are modified by the presence of Mn, so that their adverse effect is alleviated. Overall, this alloy remains unsatisfactory, in particular because primary silicon crystals inevitably appear in its structure.
The piston alloy "LM 30" with hypereutectic Si content (16.0 to 18.0% by weight) is known from the Aluminum Handbook, 14th edition, p. 1044, which has a high Fe content (1, 1% by weight), a relatively small proportion of Mn (0.3% by weight) and relatively little Mg (0.4 to 0.7% by weight). In addition, grain refiners are also included, e.g. B. Zn and Ti. This alloy also has a high proportion of primary silicon.
Finally, from US Pat. No. 5,217,546, an over-eutectic alloy with 12 to 15% by weight of Si is known which contains more than 0.10% by weight of Sr and at the same time more than 0.005% by weight of Ti. In addition, this alloy contains 1.5 to 5.5% Cu; 1.0 to 3.0% Ni; 0.1 to 1.0% Mg; 0.1 to 1.0% Fe; 0.1 to 0.8% Mn and 0.01 to 0.1% Zr. In addition, this alloy can contain a number of other elements as permissible admixtures.
The constant technical development of internal combustion engines to higher performance with lower power consumption and at the same time lower pollutant emissions has led to the fact that the piston components in particular are exposed to ever higher mechanical and thermal loads.
From Nüral piston manual by Alcan Deutschland GmbH, 1992 edition, various piston alloys are specified (see p. 25/35), and these can have a eutectic or hypereutectic Si content. The additions of Cu, Mg and Ni are each in the order of magnitude of 1% by weight.
These customary piston alloys and also the known Al-Si alloys described above often no longer meet the requirements. On the one hand, at temperatures of 250 ° C they lose more than half of their mechanical strength at room temperature. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that these alloys have sharp-edged crystals made of primary silicon in their structure, which become the starting point of fatigue fractures under alternating loads and also promote the propagation of cracks.