How can pistons be made from alloys?

DE4404420A1 - Aluminum Alloy, Aluminum Alloy Pistons, and Use of Aluminum Alloy - Google Patents

Aluminum alloy, aluminum alloy piston and use of aluminum alloy

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Publication number
DE4404420A1
DE4404420A1DE19944404420DE4404420ADE4404420A1DE 4404420 A1DE4404420 A1DE 4404420A1DE 19944404420 DE19944404420 DE 19944404420DE 4404420 ADE4404420 ADE 4404420ADE 4404420 A1DE4404420 A1DE 4404420A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
weight
alloy
aluminum alloy
pistons
piston
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
DE19944404420
Other languages
English (en)
Other versions
DE4404420C2 (de
Inventor
Lothar Hofmann
Klaus Lades
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Federal Mogul Nuernberg GmbH
Original assignee
Alcan Germany GmbH
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Alcan Deutschland GmbHfiledCriticalAlcan Deutschland GmbH
Priority to DE19944404420priorityCriticalpatent / DE4404420C2 / de
Publication of DE4404420A1publicationCriticalpatent / DE4404420A1 / de
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE4404420C2publicationCriticalpatent / DE4404420C2 / de
Anticipated expirationlegal-statusCritical
Expired - Fee Relatedlegal-statusCriticalCurrent

Left

  • 229910045601 alloyInorganic materials0.000titleabstractdescription51
  • 229910052782aluminiumInorganic materials0.000titleabstractdescription9
  • 229910052742ironInorganic materials0.000claimsabstractdescription5
  • 238000002485combustion reactionMethods0.000claimsabstractdescription3
  • 229910052710siliconInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription24
  • 229910000838 Al alloysInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription22
  • XUIMIQQOPSSXEZ-UHFFFAOYSA-NsiliconChemical compound [Si] XUIMIQQOPSSXEZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N0.000claimsdescription16
  • 239000010703siliconSubstances0.000claimsdescription16
  • 229910052802 copperInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription15
  • 229910052749magnesiumInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription11
  • 229910052759nickelInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription9
  • 229910052719titaniumInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription8
  • 229910052748manganeseInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription7
  • 229910052712 strontiumInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription7
  • 229910052720 vanadiumInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription6
  • 229910052726 zirconiumInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription6
  • 229910052787antimonyInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription5
  • 229910052804chromiumInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription5
  • 229910052803 cobaltInorganic materials0.000claimsdescription4
  • 239000010949 copperSubstances0.000claims5
  • 239000011777magnesiumSubstances0.000claims5
  • 239000011651chromiumSubstances0.000claims3
  • 239000010936titaniumSubstances0.000claims3
  • 239000011572manganeseSubstances0.000claims2
  • 239000010950nickelSubstances0.000claims2
  • 239000011514ironSubstances0.000claims1
  • 239000000956alloySubstances0.000abstractdescription50
  • REDXJYDRNCIFBQ-UHFFFAOYSA-Naluminium (3+) Chemical class [Al + 3] REDXJYDRNCIFBQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N0.000abstractdescription34
  • XAGFODPZIPBFFR-UHFFFAOYSA-Naluminum Chemical compound [A1] XAGFODPZIPBFFR-UHFFFAOYSA-N0.000abstractdescription8
  • 239000004411aluminiumSubstances0.000abstractdescription2
  • 239000012535 impuritySubstances0.000abstract1
  • 235000010210aluminiumNutrition0.000description7
  • 238000005266castingMethods0.000description6
  • 230000005496eutecticsEffects0.000description4
  • 229910021364Al-Si alloyInorganic materials0.000description3
  • 238000004519 manufacturing processMethods0.000description3
  • 229910052751 metalInorganic materials0.000description3
  • 239000002184metalSubstances0.000description3
  • 239000000203mixtureSubstances0.000description3
  • 229910000676Si alloyInorganic materials0.000description2
  • -1aluminum-siliconChemical compound0.000description2
  • 238000001816coolingMethods0.000description2
  • 238000004512 die castingMethods0.000description2
  • 230000005484gravityEffects0.000description2
  • 239000000463materialSubstances0.000description2
  • 238000000034methodMethods0.000description2
  • 229910052725zincInorganic materials0.000description2
  • 229910000967As alloyInorganic materials0.000description1
  • 230000036826ExcretionEffects0.000description1
  • 102100002117HFEHuman genes0.000description1
  • 101700022738HFEProteins0.000description1
  • 208000001285Stress FracturesDiseases0.000description1
  • 206010047289Ventricular extrasystolesDiseases0.000description1
  • 238000010521absorption reactionMethods0.000description1
  • 239000000654additiveSubstances0.000description1
  • 238000005275alloyingMethods0.000description1
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  • UFHFLCQGNIYNRP-UHFFFAOYSA-NhydrogenChemical compound [H] [H] UFHFLCQGNIYNRP-UHFFFAOYSA-N0.000description1
  • 229910052739 hydrogenInorganic materials0.000description1
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  • 150000002739metalsChemical class0.000description1
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Classifications

    • C-CHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22-METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22C-ALLOYS
    • C22C21 / 00 — Alloys based on aluminum
    • C22C21 / 02 — Alloys based on aluminum with silicon as the next major constituent

Description

This invention relates to an aluminum alloy, more precisely an aluminum-silicon alloy, a piston made of such an alloy and particularly advantageous uses of this aluminum alloy, in particular for components that are used at elevated temperatures and are mechanically highly stressed.
Various aluminum-silicon alloys are known, these being classified into eutectic, hypereutectic or hypoeutectic alloys depending on the silicon content. Many of these known alloys are suitable as alloys for pistons. For example, aluminum key, W. Hufnagel, Hrsgb. Alumi nium-Zentrale, Aluminum-Verlag, 1st edition, 1981, p. 85 an aluminum alloy known, comprising 8.5 to 10.5 wt .-% Si, 2.0 to 4.0 wt .-% Cu, 0 , 5 to 1.5 wt% Mg, less than 1.2 wt% Fe, less than 0.5 wt% Mn, less than 0.5 wt% Ni, less than 1.0 % By weight of Zn, less than 0.25% by weight of Ti, less than a total of 0.5% by weight of other elements, the remainder being aluminum. Although a piston made from this alloy has good mechanical strength, it is not sufficient at high temperatures.
From DE-OS-19 32 537 aluminum alloys are known whose silicon content is in the range of 8.5 to 10.5 wt .-%. In addition, this alloy has low proportions of the elements Cu, Ni and Mn, which means that this alloy does not have sufficient mechanical strength, especially at elevated temperatures.
From DE-OS 38 23 476 an aluminum alloy is be known that can be used for pistons. A concrete example of such an alloy comprises 9 wt .-% Si, 3.5 wt .-% Cu, 1.0 wt .-% Mg, 0.15 wt .-% Ti + B and 1.8 wt .-% % Ni. Even a piston made from this alloy is not sufficient for the high mechanical and thermal loads in today's high-performance engines.
In Everling-Müller-Richter, Leichtmetallkolben, VEB Verlag Technik Berlin 1953, table 2c after p. 40, the composition of the piston alloy "Nüral 3210a" is given. The Si content is between 9 and 11% by weight; Cu and Ni are used in amounts of 2 to 2.8 and 0.2 to 0.4 wt%, respectively. This alloy also does not have sufficient mechanical strength at higher temperatures.
DE-OS 4 103 934 describes an aluminum alloy suitable for pistons which contains at least 9.0% by weight Si, 3.0 to 7.0% by weight Ni, 1.5 to 6.0% by weight Cu and contains at least one element from the group consisting of Mg, Mn, V, Sc, Fe, Ti, Sr, Zn, B and Cr, the remainder being aluminum and impurities. It is particularly preferred if this alloy contains a maximum of 0.8% by weight of Mg. Although the very high content of Ni leads to good mechanical strength, this makes the cost of this alloy very high.
Among the near-eutectic alloys, for example, the alloy A-S12u4NZr is known (see Metals and Materials, 1972, pp. 211-216; R.F. Smart and J.A. Reynolds, Aluminum in Automotive Piston Materials). This alloy has silicon in a proportion of 11.0 to 13.5% by weight. This alloy also contains 0.9 to 1.6% Mg; 3.5 to 4.5% Cu and 1.1 to 1.7% Ni are relatively large amounts of Fe and Mn. The presence of Mn in relatively high contents is necessary here because the Fe content is relatively high. This is because with a high Fe content, long needles are formed which are modified by the presence of Mn, so that their adverse effect is alleviated. Overall, this alloy remains unsatisfactory, in particular because primary silicon crystals inevitably appear in its structure.
The piston alloy "LM 30" with hypereutectic Si content (16.0 to 18.0% by weight) is known from the Aluminum Handbook, 14th edition, p. 1044, which has a high Fe content (1, 1% by weight), a relatively small proportion of Mn (0.3% by weight) and relatively little Mg (0.4 to 0.7% by weight). In addition, grain refiners are also included, e.g. B. Zn and Ti. This alloy also has a high proportion of primary silicon.
Finally, from US Pat. No. 5,217,546, an over-eutectic alloy with 12 to 15% by weight of Si is known which contains more than 0.10% by weight of Sr and at the same time more than 0.005% by weight of Ti. In addition, this alloy contains 1.5 to 5.5% Cu; 1.0 to 3.0% Ni; 0.1 to 1.0% Mg; 0.1 to 1.0% Fe; 0.1 to 0.8% Mn and 0.01 to 0.1% Zr. In addition, this alloy can contain a number of other elements as permissible admixtures.
The constant technical development of internal combustion engines to higher performance with lower power consumption and at the same time lower pollutant emissions has led to the fact that the piston components in particular are exposed to ever higher mechanical and thermal loads.
From Nüral piston manual by Alcan Deutschland GmbH, 1992 edition, various piston alloys are specified (see p. 25/35), and these can have a eutectic or hypereutectic Si content. The additions of Cu, Mg and Ni are each in the order of magnitude of 1% by weight.
These customary piston alloys and also the known Al-Si alloys described above often no longer meet the requirements. On the one hand, at temperatures of 250 ° C they lose more than half of their mechanical strength at room temperature. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that these alloys have sharp-edged crystals made of primary silicon in their structure, which become the starting point of fatigue fractures under alternating loads and also promote the propagation of cracks.