Are legacy approvals constitutional? Are they nepotism?

Configuration of rule and democratization in Indonesia (1965 ...

ANNOUNCEMENTS

OF THE INSTITUTE FOR ASIAN CULTURE

HAMBURG

–––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number 348 –––––––––––––––––––– –––––––

Andreas Ufen

Dominion configurationand

DemocratizationinIndonesia

(1965-2000)

–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

Hamburg 2002


Editing of the series of communications by the Institute for Asiaande:

Dr. Brunhild Staiger

Manuscript editing: Vera Rathje

Text design: Elisabeth Fatty

Total production: German Overseas Institute, Hamburg

ISBN 3-88910-266-2

Copyright Institute for Asiaande

Hamburg 2002

CIP title recording:

Ufen, Andreas

Dominion configurationandDemocratizationin

Indonesia (1965-2000). - Hamburg: IFA, 2002. -

xlviii, 627 pp.

(Communications from the Institute for Asiaande; No. 348)

ISBN 3-88910-266-2

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Table of Contents

List of abbreviations andinIndonesian expressions ................................. xiv

Directory of tables and Diagrams ................................................. ........ xxxvii

Foreword ................................................. .................................................. ....... xxxix

E.inmanagement................................................. .................................................. ........ xlii

Part I: Theoretical Grandlay and historical roots

of the New Order ............................................... ..............................1

1. Theoretical preliminary considerations .............................................. ............................ 1

1.1 Indonesian experiences of democracy and selected problems

of democracy theory ................................................ ......................................... 1

Experience with parliamentary democracy in Indonesia

the 50s ............................................... .............................................. 2

Problems of democratic theory ............................................... ................ 7

democracy and Culture: The Javanese worldview and the

Islam................................................. .................................................. .. 7

democracy and Culture: Islam .............................................. ........ 9

About the relationship between Democratization

and economic development ................................................ ...... 11

1.2 Neopatrimonialism, classes, strategic and conflict-prone groups ........ 16

Neopatrimonialism ................................................. .............................. 17

Classes ................................................. .................................................. 24

Democratizationand the analysis more strategic and more capable of conflict

Groups (SKOG) .............................................. ....................................... 29

SKOG ................................................. ................................................ 29

Difficulties in applying the SKOG concept

to the new order .............................................. .......................... 30

SKOG, patron-client relationships and Alliances ............................ 32

2. The Dominion configuration to 1965: The political development

and the position of the bureaucracy, the military, the entrepreneur,

the Chineat and Muslim groups ................................................ ............ 34

Forms of rule, political organizations and political struggles

to 1965 ................................................................................................... 35

The first patrimonial empires ............................................... ............... 35

The ruling structure of the patrimonial empires ................................... 36

v


vi Table of Contents

Colonial rule since 1800 .............................................. ......... 41

nationalism and first political organizations ........................... 44

The rule of the Japanese 1942-1945 ........................................... .... 47

The phase of the revolution 1945-1949 ........................................... ...... 48

Parliamentary democracy 1949 / 50-1957 ............................... 50

Directed democracy ................................................ ......................... 53

The development of the bureaucracy from the Einfall of the Japanese up 1965 ........ 57

The development of the army up 1965and the emergence of

Sekber Golkar ................................................ ......................................... 59

The creation of Sekber Golkar ............................................. ........ 62

The entrepreneurs ................................................ ..................................... 63

Economic development and the position of

eindomestic entrepreneurs in the colonial system ........................... 63

The development of the inIndonesian economy from the

Independence up 1965 ................................................................... 65

The special role of Chineat inIndonesia ........................................... 70

The meaning of Islam and Islamic groups up 1965.................. 73

The development of the power elite and the verbinmanure

on the figuration of the New Order ............................................. ............ 77

Part II: The Strategic and the conflict-prone groups

of the New Order (1965-1998)...................................................... 81

3. Legitimation, structure and Development of the regime coalition

and co-opted organizations and Groups................................................. ... 81

3.1 The legitimacy of the regime coalition and the political culture

of the New Order ............ ................................... .................................................. 81

The corporatist strategy ............................................... ................... 84

The organism and the pancasila ................................................ ....... 85

The construction of the organism .............................................. .......... 88

Dwifungsi ................................................. ............................................... 92

Floating mass ................................................ ........................................... 93

Anti-communism and the fight against Sukarnoism ............ 94

Aspects of political culture and the erosion of the value system ......... 97

Notes on political culture .............................................. ... 97

Erosion of the value system ............................................... ................ 102

3.2 Grandtrains of economic change and of economic policy

since 1965............................................................................................................ 104

Phases of political and economic development (1965-1998) 104

From the change of power (1965-1967/68) to the Malari Affair (1974) ....... 106


Table of Contents vii

From the malaria incident (1974) to Suharto's fourth re-election

(1983): Protection and Import substitution ............................................. 109

The transition phase in the early / mid-1980s ................................ 112

The liberalization of foreign trade and of the Finindustry

since 1985/86 and the change between political opening

and Repression up to the crisis year 1997/98 ......................................... 115

Indonesiain the Asian crisis (1997/98) ........................................... ...... 119

Criticism of economic policy .............................................. ............... 120

E.inrivers on the Democratization....................................................... 122

3.3 Suharto and seine position in the regime coalition ......................................... 125

Seine Takeover ................................................ ......................... 125

Abundance of power, neopatrimonialism, sources of legitimation ...................... 127

Seine origin and seine military career ..................................... 129

Suharto's ideas of power and Reign ............................... 131

Rule strategies of the president ............................................... .... 136

Suharto and seine relationships with clients and Client Groups ....... 139

3.4 The big entrepreneurs ............................................... ....................................... 149

The importance of private, state and foreign companies ... 150

Large farmers and their position in the ruling system ............................ 153

S.inOindonesian in of the New Order ............................................... .... 155

The politics of the New Order ............................................. ........... 156

S.inOindonesians as scapegoats ............................................... ....... 158

Causes of success ............................................... ....................... 159

Development of the conglomerates ............................................... ........ 160

Case studies: Liem Sioe Liong and "Bob" Hasan .............................. 162

The stance of the coalition regime and the public

to the SinOindonesian in the 90s ...................................... 165

Pribumi entrepreneur ............................................... ............................. 167

State funding for Pribumi ............................................ ..... 168

Cadin, Hippi, Hipmi .............................................. ........................... 172

The Suhartos as entrepreneurs .............................................. ................. 175

Examples of nepotism: BPPC, Busang, Mobnas ........................ 179

Final remark: entrepreneurs in of the New Order ..................... 185

3.5 The military ............................................... .................................................. ..... 188

Reshaping the armed forces of 1965 until the beginning of the 90s ...... 188

The inIndonesian armed forces in civil functions ............................ 193

The military in the administration ................................................ ......... 194

ABRI and Golkar, ABRI as parliamentary group ............................. 196

The armed forces as entrepreneurs .............................................. ....... 197

The secret services and their position in the system of rule

of the New Order ............................................... ................................ 202


viii Table of Contents

Kopkamtib and Bakorstanas ................................................. ........... 203

Opsus, Bakin, Bais, BIA, preman and Kopassus ............................. 204

Factions inwithin ABRIs: the development until the end of the 80s. 207

ABRI in the 90s ............................................... ........................ 209

Summary ................................................. ................................ 217

3.6 The bureaucrats ............................................... ................................................. 219

The reorganization of the administrative apparatus in the first years ....... 219

The rule on the periphery, inparticular in the villages ............ 220

"State Ibuism" .............................................. .......................................... 227

The Finstate of affairs and centralism .......................................... 228

Features of administrative work ............................................... ........... 229

M.inserial management ................................................. ........................... 231

The technocrats or: the Berkeley mafia and Wijoyonomics .......... 232

The technocrats: their story and their centers of power ............. 233

Phases of development ............................................... .................... 236

Interventionist-oriented nationalists .......................................... 238

Power centers of the nationalists and Phases of Development ......... 239

Habibienomics ................................................. ................................ 242

Conflicts with the technocrats and the military ............................ 244

Summary ................................................. ................................ 247

3.7 Religious leaders between loyalty and limited opposition .................... 248

The different currents in the inIndonesian Islam ....................... 249

Santri, abangan and neo-santri ............................................... ......... 249

Current interpretations of Islamic teaching:

Traditionalists, modernists, neo-modernists,

F.andamentalists, transformists ............................................... .... 250

The development of Islam in of the New Order by the end of the

80s ................................................ ............................................... 253

The rapprochement between the regime coalition and islamic

Groups since the late 80s ............................................ .............. 256

Tensions as a result of the policy of Islamization ................................... 259

Muslim organizations: Dewan Dakwah, MUI, NU

and Muhammadiyah ................................................. ............................. 262

ICMI ................................................. .................................................. ... 265

The foundation and the reaction einiger critic ............................. 265

tasks and Structure of ICMI ............................................... ..... 267

Final remark ................................................ .................... 271

3.8 Politicians in of the New Order: parties, golkar, parliaments and Elections. 271

The transformation of the political system until 1975 ............................. 272

The ruling Golkar party ............................................... .................. 274

The development of Golkar from 1965 until the beginning of the 80s ....... 275


Table of Contents ix

Reorganization under Sudharmono and Weakening by

Wahono ................................................. ........................................... 278

Golkar after the party congress of 1993 ............................ 279

The PPP ................................................ .................................................. 282

The PDI until 1993 .............................................. ..................................... 284

The parliaments ................................................ ...................................... 286

Elections in the New Order Political System .............................. 291

Final remark ................................................ .................... 295

3.9 E.inige concluding remarks on the regime coalition of the

New order ................................................ .................................................. .... 297

The Strategic Groups of the New Order .................................... 297

Clientelistic networks, alliances and strategic groups ......... 299

Forms of power struggle in the regime coalition .............................. 301

Erosioninungen since the end of the 1980s ................................... 303

4. The development and Structure of oppositional groups ............................ 306

4.1 The opposition inIndonesia until the end of the 80s .................................... 306

The elimination of the political Linken and the massacres 1965/66... 307

The restriction of the opposition's room for maneuver:

Punitive and Press law ................................................. ........................... 310

The criminal and criminal procedure law as political instruments ...... 310

Control of the media .............................................. .................. 312

The opposition until the end of the 80s ........................................... ..... 315

The student protests in the early 1970s and the

Malari affair ............................................... .................................... 315

The tensions of 1977/78, the student movement

and the establishment of Fosko, LKB and Petisi 50 ........................... 317

The resistance of Islamic groups and the Tanjung Priok

Incident................................................. .................................... 321

4.2 The democracy movement since the late 1980s: ininternational E.inrivers,

Democracy discourse, development phases .............................................. 325

Foreign policy E.inrivers on the Democratization............................ 325

Demonstration and Diffusion effects ................................................. 328

The discourse on democracy andDemocratizationinIndonesia

in the 90s ............................................... ................................... 330

The opposition from 1988 to 1998: phases of development ................ 334

4.3 Free professionals, politicians and religious leaders and their respective

Organizations ................................................. .................................................. ..... 336

Statistical data on the professionals ............................................. .... 337


x table of contents

The first phase from 1988/89 to 1993 ......................................... .......... 340

Keterbukaan ................................................. .................................... 340

The role of generals a.D. and former top politicians .... 340

Discussion forums: The Forum Demokrasi, FPKR and Petisi 50 ...... 342

The National Human Rights Commission KomnasHAM .............. 345

The phase from 1993 to 1996 ............................................ ..................... 346

The PDI until 1996 .............................................. ................................ 347

Quasi-parties and PUDI ................................................. ................. 351

Action alliances: KIPP, Oposisi Indonesia and MARI ................. 353

Pembreidelan and the establishment of AJI ........................................ 356

Contradictions in the judicial system ............................................... ......... 359

The case "Udin": The courtroom as a forum for the opposition .... 361

The third phase from "Sabtu Kelabu" to February 1998 ................ 363

The "Sabtu Kelabu" ............................................. ............................. 363

The PDI, Megawati and the 1997 elections ....................................... 364

Pro-democratic wing in religious organizations:

The HKBP conflict, Amien Rais and Abdurrahman Wahid ................ 366

Muhammadiyah and Amien Rais ................................................ ..... 368

NU and Abdurrahman Wahid ................................................ .......... 370

Final remark ................................................. ................................ 374

4.4 Non-governmental organizations ................................................ ........................ 375

Definition and Typology ................................................. ..................... 376

Social composition and Weaknesses of the NGOs ......................... 379

Case studies for BINGOs: LBH and Walhi .......................................... 381

LINGOs: Kleinere, partly radical NGOs ............................................. ... 384

Regional andininternational networks ............................................... 387

The role of NGOs for the democracy movement ......................... 388

4.5 Students ................................................ .................................................. ....... 390

Developments 1965........................................................................ 390

The different generations since 1965............................................ 391

The student movement since the mid / late 1980s ....................... 394

Composition of the student body and Motifs

political radicalization ............................................... ......... 394

Protests in the late 80s andin the 90s:

Kedung Ombo, the Traffic Act, SDSB, FAMI ......................... 398

The Partai Rakyat Democracy .............................................. ........... 401

Final remark ................................................. ................................ 405

4.6 workers and Unions in of the New Order ..................................... 405

Notes on the history ............................................... ........... 405

The state union and the industrial relations

in of the New Order. .................................................. ........................ 406


Table of Contents xi

Composition of the workforce .............................................. 411

Strikes ................................................. ............................................. 414

The phase of erosion: the emergence of more independent

Unions and the Marsinah case ............................................... .. 417

Summary and Conclusions .......................................... 421

4.7 Farm workers and Farmers ................................................. ................................ 422

Notes on the development of agriculture

in of the New Order ............................................... ............................ 422

Land conflicts ................................................. ........................................ 425

Case studies: Lampung, Sampang and Kedung Ombo .................... 427

The importance for the democracy movement ........................................ 431

4.8 The urban poor and the riots ................................................ ..................... 432

E.inSome remarks on the urban poor and to the informal sector. 432

Riots as forms einthere diffuse resistance ................................. 433

Case studies: Situbondo, Tasikmalaya, Purwakarta, Pekalongan,

Surabaya and the "Naga Hijau" accusation ........................................ 438

Rengasdenklok, Banjarmasin, Tanah Abang and the May

Unrest ................................................. .......................................... 440

Summary and Conclusions .......................................... 442

4.9 Secessionists and regionalist movements ....................................... 444

Aceh ................................................. .................................................. .... 444

West Papua (Irian Jaya) ........................................... .............................. 445

East Timor ............................................... ............................................... 447

invasion and Warfare ................................................. ............. 447

The Dili massacre .............................................. .............................. 449

The resistance against the occupiers ............................................. .... 451

Aceh, West Papua and East Timor in the inIndonesian

Publicity and the importance for the democracy movement .......... 454

4.10 E.inSome final remarks on the conflict-prone groups

inIndonesia..................................................................................................... 456

Forms of protest and Programs ................................................. ............. 456

The relationship of the oppositional groups to oneinother ....................... 457

The border between regime coalition and Opposition ........................ 459


xii Table of Contents

Part III: The fall of Suharto and the Democratization

under Habibie and Wahid ................................................. .............. 465

5. The collapse of the Suhartos regime .......................................... ....................... 465

Forest fires and Crop failure ................................................. ................. 466

The Asian crisis ................................................ ....................................... 467

The social consequences of the crisis ............................................. ............. 473

Causes of the Asian Crisis ............................................... ................... 474

The phase leading up to the change of government in May 1998 ............................ 478

The first unrest, the re-election of Suharto and the new

Cabinett ................................................. ........................................... 478

The student demonstrations from February to mid-May 1998 ..... 482

The shots at Trisakti University, the riots in the middle

May 1998 and the occupation of the parliamentary grounds ..................... 487

The events on 20./21. May................................................. .............. 491

The behavior of various actors during the collapse of the regime ..... 493

The regime coalition in the last few weeks of the

New order ................................................ ................................ 494

The opposition in the last weeks of the New Order ............ 498

6. From Habibie's transitional government to democratically elected

Government of Abdurrahman Wahid .............................................. ................... 501

6.1 Development up to the national elections in June 1999 ........................ 501

The cabinett Habibie and seine Task .............................................. 501

The changed political climate .............................................. .............. 503

The transition before the Hintergrand the economic crisis .................... 505

The political renewal ............................................... ...................... 508

The emergence of einthe new party system ................................... 508

The MPR meeting in November 1998: The new laws,

the student demonstrations and the "Ciganjur Declaration" ... 512

The military during the system change ....................................... 516

Riots and Secessionism: The East Timor Question, Aceh,

West Papua and the conflicts in Borneo and on Ambon ............... 519

The national elections of June 7, 1999 .......................................... .... 523

Balance of developments in the transition phase up to June 1999 .. 526

6.2 From Habibie to Wahid: The phase leading up to the election of the President .................. 528

First exploratory talks ................................................ .................. 528

The Bank Bali scandal ............................................. ............................. 529

East Timor becomes independent ............................................. ..................... 530

The MPR meeting and the election of the fourth president ...................... 531


Table of Contents xiii

7. The Wahid government and their problems with consolidation

of democracy (October 1999-December 2000) ......................................... ..... 534

The new cabinett and seine Tasks ................................................ 534

The new foreign policy and dealing with secessionist

Movements ................................................. ......................................... 537

Cabinetts reshuffle, interpellation and Impeachment

Threats ................................................. ........................................ 543

The resolutions of the MPR meeting from 7.-18. August 2000 .................. 545

The continuation of the economic restructuring and

Consolidation ................................................. ..................................... 548

Conflicts with the military .............................................. ....................... 551

Dealing with the past ............................................. 554

The cabinett from August 2000 and further attacks

to the President ............................................... ................................. 557

Indonesia qualityin Year after the presidential election: Consolidation

of democracy? .................................................. .................................. 560

Part IV: Conclusion .............................................. .................................. 564

8. Summary and Conclusions................................................. 564

Changes in the Dominion configuration (1965-1998)......................... 564

Comments on the analysis of the Dominion configuration ...................... 567

Blocking the Democratization .................................................. 569

Conclusions on the theory of democracy ..................................... 571

The transition until May 1998 ............................................ ......... 573

Conclusions on the Democratization after Suharto ...................... 575

The further transition phases ............................................... ........ 575

Strategic and conflict-prone groups in the fragile

Democracy................................................. ...................................... 577

Summary ................................................. .................................................. ........ 580

Bibliography................................................. ............................................... 581

List of interviews ............................................... ...................................... 624


List of abbreviations andinIndonesian expressions

abangan non-orthodox, syncretistic Muslim

ABRI Angkatan Bersenjata Republic of Indonesia = Armed Forces

the republic Indonesia; Designation valid since 1962;

since 1999: TNI (see there)

ABRI-Cendana also ABRI-loyalis; i.e. ABRI wing of the palace

(cendana), Suharto, loyally serves

ABRI-hijau "ABRI-green"; i.e. the ABRI wing of the Orthodox

Muslims

ABRI-merah-putih "ABRI-red-white"; also ABRI Sapta Marga; i.e. the

ABRI wing of the nationalists, i.e. those who have the

Nation about religion or loyalty to the president

put

adat custom, tradition

AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area

AJI Aliansi Jurnalis Independen = Alliance more independent

Journalists; by 85 journalists on August 7, 1994 in Sirnagalih,

Bogor, founded

Akabri Akademi Angkatan Bersenjata Republic of Indonesia =

Academy of ABRI

Akmil Akademi Militer; Military academy in Magelang

Aldera Aliansi Demokrasi Rakyat; in Sept. 1994 by students,

farmers and Founded by workers from 15 cities

"People's Democracy Alliance"

aliran "flow", i.e. that to einhe large social group

affiliated followers einhe religious fandied

Worldview; the aliran lead to einhe

Pillar of society; after Clifford Geertz

a distinction is usually made between three alirans: those of the abangan,

the santri and the priyayi (see there)

AMPI Angkatan Muda Pembaruan Indonesia; Youth organization

from Golkar

anak-anak pejabat "Kinthat of the public officials "

APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation; founded in 1989

Apindo Asosiasi Pengusaha Indonesia = Business Association

Indonesia; relatively insignificant

xiv


List of abbreviations andinIndonesian expressions xv

Apodeti Associação Populár Democrática Timorense = Democratic

Timorese People's Associationininclination; founded

on May 27, 1974

arus bawah "undercurrent"; the subclass as diffuse political

Move

ASDT Associação Social Democrática Timorense = Social Democratic

Timorese Vereininclination; established in

May 1974, predecessorin the fretilin

ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations; founded

1967

Asintel Asisten Intelijen; Secret service assistant

Aspri Asisten-Asisten Presiden Republik Indonesia = Assistants

the President of the RI; Kitchen cabininett that

1974 was disbanded

Assospol Assistant to Kassospol (see there)

azas tunggal (also: asas tunggal); Pancasila than allinige Grandlocation

for mass organizations

Babinsee Bintara Pembina Desa; Sergeant with Portepee, the

represents the military at the lowest administrative level

Bais Badan Intelijen Strategis; Strategic intelligence;

Founded in 1983

Bakin Badan Coordinasi Intelijen Negara; CoordinBoard of Directors

of the National Secret Service

Bakorstanas Badan Coordinasi Bantuan Pemantapan Stabilitas Nasional

= Coordination authority for consolidation

national stability; successorin from Kopkamtib

in 1988

Bapak "father"; also salutation for dear elderly people

Baperki Badan Permusyawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesia =

Consultative Body for Indonesian Citizenship;

Representation of interests of the SinOindonesian; to Beginn

of the New Order dissolved

Bapilu Badan pengendali pemilihan umum = governing body

for the generalinen elections; directed by Ali Murtopo

Bapindo scandal banking scandal in the early 90s, in that too

Members of the coalition regime were involved

Bappeda I / II Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah = Regional

Development Planning Authority on Provinz- (I) and


xvi List of Abbreviations andinIndonesian expressions

administrative level below (II)

Bappenas Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional = National

Development Planning Authority

becak cycle rickshaw

"Berkeley Mafia" term for the common in Berkeley trained

"Technocrats" that in the Finnum- and Economic policy

very einwere rich in rivers

bersih lingkungan "clean environment", i.e. free from relationships to

Communists

BG Brigadier General

Brainneka Tunggal "E.inNess in Diversity "; official state motto

Ika

BIA Badan Intelijen ABRI = ABRI Secret Service; Succession organization

of Bais

Bimantara group of companies from Bambang Suharto

Bimas Bimbingan massal = instruction of the masses (for modernization

agriculture)

Bimmas Bimbingan Masyarakat Desa; Policeman next to that

Babinsa responsible for the control of the village population

is

B.ina Graha State Secretariat, see Sekneg

B.ina Swadaya NGO founded in 1974 in Jakarta, the rural support groups

supported

BINGO Big NGO

Gross GDPinagricultural product

BKPM Badan Coordinasi Penanaman Modal = authority for the

Coordination of capitalininvestments

BP7 Badan Pembinaan Pendidikan Pelaksanaan Pedoman

Penghayatan dan Pengalaman Pancasila = supervisory body

for the P4 implementation

BPHPR Badan Pearlindungan Hak-Hak politics Rakyat = body

for the protection of the political rights of the people;

founded in April 1992

BPIS Badan Pengelolaan Industri Strategis = Management Authority

for strategic industries

BPK Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan = Court of Auditors

BPPC Badan Penyangga dan Pemasaran Cengkeh = authority


List of abbreviations andindonesian expressions xvii

for support and Marketing of cloves

(under "Tommy" Suharto)

BPPT Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi = authority

for technology assessment and -application

BPS Biro Pusat Statistics; since 1997: Badan Pusat Statistics =

Central statistical authority

BPUPK Badan Penyelidikan Untuk Persiapan Kemerdekaan =

Examination Committee for Independence Preparation;

on April 29, 1945 by the Japanese einset;

should eine draft constitution; beginning of August

Replaced in 1945 by the PPKI

Brawijaya name of the military command in East Java

Brimob paramilitary mobile police brigade

GNP gross national product

Bulog Badan Urusan Logistik = state logistics authority;

i.a. responsible for the marketing of agricultural

Products

BUMN Badan Usaha Milik Negara = state enterprise

CGI Consultative Group for Indonesia; Successor to

IGGI; Association of 18 countries and 13 multilateral

Organizations chaired by the World Bank

Cides Center for Information and Development Studies;

Think tank from ICMI in Jakarta

Cilangkap ABRI headquarters

Citra Lamtoro group of companies from "Tutut" Suharto

Gung

CNRM Conselho Nacional de Resistência Maupe = National Council

for the Maetze Resistance; founded in 1988

CNRT Conselho Nacional de Resistência Timorense = National Council

for the Timorese resistance; founded in

April 1998

CPDS Center for Policy and Development Studies; near the army

Think tank in Jakarta

CSIS Center for Strategic and International Studies; Think

tank in Jakarta; founded by Ali Murtopo and Sujono

Humardani

CUCO-I Credit Union Co-ordinating Organization; NGO in