How did Antoine Lavoisier discover the law
Understand chemistry, textbook
For those who are particularly interested The most important thing H2 96 The reaction equation describes in the everyday world which substances disappear and arise, and in the nanoworld which substance particles are destroyed and newly formed. The formulas of the starting materials (starting materials) are to the left of the reaction arrow, those of the products (end materials) are to the right. The law of conservation of mass has the consequence that the atomic symbols are "retained" in every reaction equation. Accordingly, each formula must be preceded by the appropriate stoichiometric coefficient (except 1). It indicates how many molecules, atoms or formula units react with a “minimal turnover” in the nanoworld. Solar eclipse with prominences Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794) The law of conservation of mass was discovered by Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier (1743–1794). He is considered the founder of modern chemistry because he was the first to use the scales to study reactions. Its mass determinations showed that combustion products are heavier than the corresponding starting materials (see page 17). These results falsified the then generally accepted phlogiston theory, which explained every combustion process as the escape of "fuel" (phlogiston). Lavoisier developed a completely new theory: When iron powder is burned, no phlogiston escapes, but part of the air (oxygen) combines with the iron. This is why the "ash" (iron (III) oxide) has become heavier. Unfortunately, Lavoisier was sentenced to death in the turmoil of the French Revolution. However, he was allowed to complete the scientific experiments before his execution. In all chemical reactions the atoms behave as smallest, indivisible and constant units; only the electron shell is slightly changed. As a result, the law of conservation of mass and the law of constant proportions can be observed. The amounts of energy converted in chemical reactions are - compared to the splitting or fusion of atomic nuclei - very small. When the atomic nuclei change, however, such extreme amounts of energy are released that deviations from the law of mass conservation can be observed. The reason for this is the relationship between energy and mass discovered by Albert Einstein (1879–1955): E = m. c 2 (E = energy, m = mass, c = speed of light). With this it can be calculated, for example, that the sun loses approx. 4,000,000 tons of mass per second, which is radiated into space as energy. The energy turnover in chemical reactions in the laboratory suggests changes in mass of approx. 10–8 g. Today, however, this order of magnitude is far outside the measurable range for the best scales. The atoms are retained and combine to form new particles. The total mass is retained with every chemical reaction. For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv
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